name mode size
examples 040000
mods 040000
tutorials 040000
Readme.dsm.txt 100644 10.24kB
dsm_errorhandling.txt 100644 2.39kB
dsm_sbc_syntax.txt 100644 8.41kB
dsm_syntax.txt 100644 16.1kB
dsm_todo.txt 100644 639B
The DonkeySM - state machines as SEMS applications DonkeySM is a state machine interpreter for SEMS. Application or service logic can comfortably and accurately be defined as state machine, in a simple textual state machine definition language, and executed by the dsm module as application in SEMS. A DSM consists of states and transitions between the states. One state is the initial state with which the DSM is started. The transitions have conditions. If something happens, i.e. the session processes an event, the transitions are checked in order. If all conditions match, the transition is executed. Transitions can contain actions, which are run when the transition is executed. States can have actions that are executed on entering the state, and on leaving the state. If a transition is executed, first the leaving actions of the old state, then the transition actions, and finally the entering actions of the new state are executed. DSMs can be defined in a hierarchical manner: Another DSM can be called as sub-DSM, or one can jump to another DSM, ignoring where we came from. In the DSM language, there is support for - functions (groups of action commands) - if condition { action; action; } else { action; action; } - for loops: - for ($x in range(0, 5)) { action; action; } - for ($x in $myarray) { action; action; } - for ($k,v in $mystruct) { action; action; } A session (call) in the DonkeySM has a set of named (string) variables. The variables may be used as parameter to most conditions and actions, by prepending the variable name with a dollar sign. The parameters of an event (e.g. the key on key press) may be accessed by prepending the name with a hash (e.g. #key). There are also 'selects' with which a set of dialog properties can be accessed (e.g. @local_tag). The DonkeySM can be extended by modules, which add new conditions and actions to the language. This way, menuing system etc can be implemented as DSM, while complex logic or processing can efficitently be implemented in C++. Modules can act on new sessions, and have a initialization function that is called when the module is loaded. DonkeySM also has built in actions to call DI methods from other modules. Actions (and conditions) can throw exceptions. Once an exception occurs, execution of the current actions is interrupted. Exceptions are handled this way that special "exception" transitions are executed. Exception transitions are marked with "exception" in the conditions list. Once the FSM is in exception handling, only exception transitions are followed. DSMs may throw exceptions with the throw(<type>) action or the throwOnError() action. DSM can cache a set of prompts, configured at start, in memory using PromptCollection. A patch for fmsc 1.0.4 from the graphical FSM editor fsme ( is available, so DSMs can be defined in click-n-drag fashion and compiled to SEMS DSM diagrams. DSM scripts can include other scripts by using the #include "script.dsm" directive. That loads a script from the load path (where the current script resides), unless an absolute path is given (e.g. #include "/path/to/script). There is SIP Session Timer (RFC4028) support, which is configured in dsm.conf. By default, session timers are turned not enabled. SystemDSMs ========== A system DSM is executed without a corresponding call. This can be useful e.g. to execute something periodically, to make a call generator etc. Another use of system DSMs is to centralize application logic that spans several calls. The call legs send updates in theirs states as events to the central system DSM, which centrally processes those events and sends commands as events back to the call legs, which then process those commands. Obviously, only limited functionality is available in System DSMs, all call and media related functionality is not available (and will throw exceptions with type 'core'). A system DSM receives the "startup" event on start of the server, or if it is created via createSystemDSM DI call. It gets a "reload" event if the system DSM is created by a live config reload. On server shutdown, a system DSM receives a "system" event with "ServerShutdown" as type. See test_system_event.dsm example for an example how to handle server start and reload. DI commands =========== DI commands allow interaction with DSM calls, and DSM script reload: postDSMEvent(string call_id, [ [[param0,val0],[param1,val1],...] ] post a DSM event into a call. can be used to interact with running calls in DSM. See DSM + monitoring + DI example in examples/dsm_di_monit. Example: s.postDSMEvent(call_id, [['action', 'take'],['roomname', 'realworld']]) reloadDSMs() reload all DSMs from config file (load_diags) from main config - DSM is loaded with main config loadDSM(string diag_name) load DSM with name diag_name, paths are taken from config file - DSM is loaded with main config loadDSMWithPaths(string diag_name, string diag_path, string mod_path) load DSM with specified paths - DSM is loaded with main config preloadModules() preload all modules specified in config file (preload_mods) preloadModule(string mod_name, string mod_path) preload module from specific path hasDSM(string diag_name, [string config]) returns 1 if DSM with diag_name is loaded, 0 if not if config empty or not given, DSM of main config will be listed listDSMs([string config]) return list of loaded DSMs if config empty or not given, DSM of main config will be listed registerApplication(string diag_name, [string config]) register DSM with name diag_name as application in SEMS (e.g. to be used with application=$(apphdr), $(ruri.param) or $(ruri.user) if config empty or not given, DSM is assumed to be in main config loadConfig(string conf_file_name, string conf_name) (re)load application bundle ("app bundle"), configuration and scripts like a file in conf_dir createSystemDSM(string conf_name, string start_diag) run a system DSM (i.e. a DSM thread not connected to a session) using scripts/configuration from conf_name. conf_name=='main' for main scripts/main config (from dsm.conf) More info ========= o doc/dsm_syntax.txt has a quick reference for dsm syntax o doc/examples/ and lib/ some example DSMs o doc/examples/dsm_di_monit example on interfacing with DSM o mods/ (will) have modules Internals ========= The DSMStateEngine has a set of DSM diagrams which are loaded by the DSMStateDiagramCollection from text file and interpreted by the DSMChartReader, a simple stack based tokenizing compiler. DSMCall, which implement the DSMSession interface (additionally to being an AmSession), run DSMStateEngine::runEvent for every event that occurs that should be processed by the engine (e.g. Audio event, onBye, ...). The DSMStateEngine checks every condition of the active state whether it matches. If all match, the exit actions of the current state, the transition actions and then the enter actions of the next state are executed. The DSMCondition::match and DSMAction::execute functions get the event parameters and the session as parameters, so that they can operate on variables, implement selects etc. The DSMCall implementation is very simple, it uses a playlist and has PromptCollection to simply play prompts etc. DSMCoreModule is a 'built in' module that implements the basic conditions (test(), hangup() etc) and actions (set(), playFile(), DI etc). Roadmap ======= On the roadmap is the possibility for modules to be the session factory used for creating the new session. As the DSMSession is mostly an abstract interface, other session types can easily be implemented, and their functionality be exposed to the DSM interpreter by custom actions and conditions that interact with that specific session type. As the call state representation is nicely encapsulated here, this can also provide an abstraction layer on which active call replication can be implemented (rather than re-doing that for every application). Q&A === Why "Donkey" SM? Thanks Atle for the name: "I dont know why.. but my first thought when I read good name for FSM interpreter was Donkey. The reason for the name is that you put alot of things ontop of a donkey, and let it carry it arround.. and this is the same.. you put loads of stuf ontop.. and it carries it." What is repost()? If an event should be reevaluated, e.g. by the transitions of another state or the initial state of another DSM which is called with callFSM/ jumpFSM, repost() can be called, which signals the interpreter to evaluate the current event again. Is the diagram interpreted or compiled? DonkeySM reads the DSM script and creates an internal representation (DSM classes in STL containers). This way it can be executed very efficiently. map<string, string> var; - Are you crazy? E stands for Express! yes, right, there would be more efficient ways to implement that. Anyway, in my experience one mostly has to manipulate and check strings, and it is just very comfortable to do it this way. OTOH, if in a normal call there is a transition maybe on average every 10 seconds, for which 5 conditions are checked, it is not so much an impact on performance, considering that we are processing an audio packet every 20 ms. You rely too heavily on polymorphism and RTTI - one dynamic_cast for each condition of each transition is way too heavy! Sure, but as noted above, there should not be heavy processing done in the DSM. If you need this, then consider writing your app entirely in C++. SEMS has a dynamically typed type (AmArg), why not use that one for variables? That would also make DI simpler. a patch is very welcome, best to semsdev list: or the tracker: There is also the avar array ("AmArg-Var"), which can hold AmArg variables. some performance numbers? unfortunately not yet for running DSMs. DSM processing is actually fast: a (quite simple) 3 state 5 transition DSM compiles in 0.2ms on P-M 2GHz. So the diagram could actually be read when the call is setup, or DSMs could load other DSMs (e.g. loadFSM() action)