SIP Express Router (ser) Installation Notes



  This memo gives you hints how to set up SER quickly. To 
  understand how SER works and how to configure it properly,
  read admin's guide available from SER website. We also
  urge you to read latest ISSUES (available from SER website 
  too) and check for potential problems in this release.
  Users of previous releases are encouraged to read NEWS to
  learn how to move to this new SER version.


1. Supported Architectures and Requirements
2. Howto Build ser From Source Distribution
3. Quick-Start Installation Guide
   A) Getting Help
   B) Disclaimers
   C) Quick Start
   D) ser with Persistent Data Storage
4. Troubleshooting

1. Supported Architectures and Requirements

Supported operating systems: Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, Darwin
Partially supported: Windows+Cygwin (core + static modules only, no IPv6,
 no TCP, no dynamic modules)
Supported architectures: i386, x86_64 (amd64), armv4l, sparc64, powerpc,
Experimental architectures: mips1, mips2, sparc32, alpha

(for other architectures the Makefiles might need to be edited)

There are various configuration options defined in the Makefile.


- gcc or icc : gcc >= 2.9x; 3.[12] recommended (it will work with older version
  but it might require some options tweaking for best performance)
- bison or yacc (Berkley yacc)
- flex
- GNU make (on Linux this is the standard "make", on *BSD and Solaris is
 called "gmake") version >= 3.80 (recommended 3.81).
- sed and tr (used in the makefiles)
- GNU tar ("gtar" on Solaris) and gzip if you want "make tar" to work
- GNU install, BSD install or Solaris install if you want "make
  install", "make bin", "make sunpkg" to work
- libmysqlclient & libz (zlib) if you want mysql support (the mysql module)
- libexpat if you want the jabber gateway support (the jabber module)
- libxml2 if you want to compile the cpl-c (CPL support) or pa (presence) 
- libradiusclient-ng (> 5.0) if you need radius support (the auth_radius,
group_radius, uri_radius and avp_radius modules)
- libpq if you need postgres support (the postgres module)

OS Notes:

 FreeBSD/OpenBSD/NetBSD: make sure gmake, bison or yacc & flex are installed.
  FreeBSD 5.4:
  If you want to compile all the modules, you will need the following packages:
  - mysql-client-* (any version, install one of the mysql*-client ports) for
  - postgresql-libpqxx-2.4.2_1 (/usr/ports/databases/postgresql-libpqxx) for
  - expat-1.95.8 (/usr/ports/textproc/expat2) for libexpat
  - libxml2-2.6.18 (/usr/ports/textproc/libxml2) for libxml2
  - radiusclient-0.4.7 (/usr/ports/net/radiusclient) for libradiusclient-ng 
  NOTE: you'll need to add radiusclient_ng=4 to the gmake command line if you
  use the 0.4.* version.
  Compile example (all the modules and ser in a tar.gz):
     gmake bin radiusclient_ng=4 include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius postgres pa"

  OpenBSD 3.7
  - mysql-client-4.0.23 (/usr/ports/databases/mysql) for libmysqlclient
  - expat-1.95.6 (/usr/ports/textproc/expat) for libexpat
  - libxml-2.6.16p0 (/usr/ports/textproc/libxml) for libxml2
  - radiusclient-ng-0.5.1 from 
   (you need to download and install it, since there is no "official" 
   openbsd port for it) for libradiusclient-ng 
  Compile example (all the modules and ser in a tar.gz):
     gmake bin include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius pa"

  NetBSD 2.0
  - mysql-client-4.1.12 (/usr/pkgsrc/databases/mysql4-client) for libmysqlclient
  - expat-1.95.8nb2 (/usr/pkgsrc/textproc/expat) for libexpat
  - libxml2-2.6.19 (/usr/pkgsrc/textproc/libxml2) for libxml2
  - radiusclient-ng-0.5.1 (see OpenBSD)
  Compile example (all the modules and ser in a tar.gz):
     gmake bin include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius pa"

 Solaris 10
  As above; you can use Solaris's yacc instead of bison. You might
  need also gtar and ginstall. If you don't have ginstall you can use Solaris
  install, just make sure it's in the PATH (it's usually in /usr/sbin) and
  add INSTALL=install either to the environment or to the make command line
  (e.g.: gmake INSTALL=install all).
  Needed packages:
  Compile example (all the modules and ser in a tar.gz):
     gmake bin INSTALL=install include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius postgres pa"


 Needed packages for compiling all the modules:
      - libmysqlclient-dev for libmysqlclient
      - libpq-dev for libpq
      - libexpat1-dev for libexpat
      - libxml2-dev for libxml2
      - libradiusclient-ng-dev for libradiusclient (you can download the 
      package from http://apt.sip-router.org/debian/dists/unstable/main/binary-i386/libradiusclient-ng-dev_0.5.1-0.5_i386.deb ).
      NOTE: you can get up-to-date ser packages or libradiusclient packages
      from http://apt.sip-router.org: add to your /etc/apt/sources.list the
      following lines:
         deb http://apt.sip-router.org/debian testing main contrib non-free
         deb http://apt.sip-router.org/debian unstable main contrib non-free
      and then: apt-get update; apt-get install libradiusclient-ng-dev
      (or, if you want to use the pre-built modules:
       apt-get install ser ser-cpl-module ser-jabber-module ser-mysq-module ser-pa-module ser-postgres-module ser-radius-modules )

 Cygwin  (alpha state, partial support)

 make sure make, bison, flex, minires and minires-devel (needed for the resolver functions) are installed. 
 Only building ser's core and some static modules is supported for now.
 Stuff known not to work:
           - IPv6 (cygwin doesn't support it yet)
           - TCP (the tcp code heavily depends on file descriptor passing 
             between processes, which is not yet supported by cygwin)
           - dynamic modules (non statically linked -- not supported because
             backlinking doesn't work in windows by design)

  Compile example (all the modules and ser in a tar.gz):
     make bin include_modules="mysql jabber cpl-c auth_radius group_radius uri_radius postgres pa"

2. Howto Build ser From Source Distribution

(NOTE: if make doesn't work try gmake  instead)

SER is split in four main parts: The core, the modules, the utilties, and scripts/examples
When you build, you can decide to build only the core, the modules, both, or all.

Compile SER core only:
make   #builds only ser core, equivalent to make ser

Compile modules except some explicitly excepted (see below)
make modules  

Compile all:
make all

Explicitly excepted modules (default in <=0.9.x):
By default make all will not build modules that require external libraries or
that are considered to be "experimental". The modules that have external
dependencies are: mysql, jabber, cpl-c, auth_radius, group_radius, uri_radius,
avp_radius, postgres, pa.

Including groups of modules (available in >0.9.x):
Instead of compiling the default modules only, you can specify groups of
modules to include, according to their status:
standard - Modules in this group are considered a standard part of SER (due to widespread usage)
    but they have no dependencies (note that some of these interplay with external systems.
    However, they don't have compile or link dependencies).

standard-dep -  Modules in this group are considered a standard part of SER (due to widespread usage)
    but they have dependencies that most be satisfied for compilation.
    NOTE! All presence modules (dialog, pa, presence_b2b, rls, xcap) have been included in this
    group due to interdependencies

stable - Modules in this group satisfy specific or niche applications, but are considered
    stable for production use. They may or may not have dependencies

experimental - Modules in this group are either not complete, untested, or without enough reports
    of usage to allow the module into the stable group. They may or may not have dependencies.

To compile core with standard modules:
make group_include="standard" all

To compile all modules (provided you have all the required libraries installed) use:
make group_include="standard standard-dep stable experimental" all

There are also in addition some "convenience" groups:

mysql - Include all modules dependent on mysql

radius - Include all modules on radiusclient

presence - Include all the presence modules

Ex. to make a standard installation with mysql, use:
make group_include="standard mysql" all

In addition to group_include (or instead), you can use 
include_modules="modA modB"
to specify exactly the modules you want to include, ex.
make include_modules="mymodule" modules

You can also explicitly skip modules using skip_modules. Let's say you want all the standard
 and standard-dep modules except domain:
make group_include="standard standard-dep" skip_modules="domain" all

NOTE!!! As this mechanism is very powerful, you may be uncertain which modules wwill be included.
Just replace all (or modules) with print-modules and you will see which modules will be included
and excluded, ex:
make print-modules
will show which modules are excluded by default.

If you want to install or to build a binary package (a tar.gz with ser and
 the modules), substitute "all" in the above command with "install" or "bin".

More compile examples:

- compile with profiling

make PROFILE=-pg all

-compile debug mode version

make mode=debug all

-compile debug version with profiling

make mode=debug PROFILE=-pg all

-compile only the print module

make modules=modules/print modules

- compile by default only the print module, in debuging mode and with 

make cfg modules=modules/print mode=debug PROFILE=-pg
make all

- change & save the  modules list without rebuilding the whole config
 (so that already compiled modules won't be re-compiled by 
  make all/make modules):

make modules-cfg include_modules="mysql postgress"

- change only the compile/build options, without changing the modules list:

make cfg-defs CPU=ultrasparc PROFILE=-pg

- compile by default all the usual modules + mysql and postgres, optimized 
for pentium-m and for space (saves both the build options and the module 

make cfg include_modules="mysql postgres" CPU=pentium-m CC_EXTRA_OPTS=-Os
make all

-compile all the "default" modules except textops and vm

make skip_modules="textops vm" modules

- save the above option in the make config, so that all make commands
will use it by default:

make cfg skip_modules="textops vm"

-compile all default modules and include uri_radius (not compiled by default):

make include_modules="uri_radius" modules

-compile all the modules from the modules subdirectory (even the one excluded
by default):

make exclude_modules="" modules

-compile all the modules from the modules subdirectory excluding vm:

make exclude_modules=vm modules


make exclude_modules="" skip_modules=vm modules

-compile with the "tm" module statically linked and with profiling

make static_modules=tm PROFILE=-pg all

-compile with gcc-3.2 instead of gcc

make CC=gcc-3.2 all


CC=gcc-3.2 make all

Make targets:


make cfg or make config (force config and module list regeneration)

Example: make cfg include_modules=mysql mode=debug  (all future make 
invocations will include the mysql module and will build in debug mode)

Note: if config.mak doesn't exist (e.g. initial checkout or after a make 
proper) or if Makefile.defs was changed, the config will be re-generated
automatically by the first make command. For example:
 make cfg  include_modules=mysql; make all is equivalent to 
 rm config.mak modules.lst; make include_modules=mysql.

make cfg-defs  (force config regeneration, but don't touch the module list)

Example: make cfg-defs CPU=ultrasparc CC_EXTRA_OPTS=-Os PROFILE=-pg

make modules-cfg or
make modules-list    (saves the module list, without regenerating the 
                       build config)
Example: make modules-list include_modules="tls" skip_modules="print"


make clean   (clean the modules too)
make proper  (clean also the dependencies and the config, but not the module
make distclean (the same as proper)
make maintainer-clean (clean everything, including make's config, saved 
  module list, auto generated files, tags, *.dbg a.s.o)
make clean-all (clean all the modules in modules/*)
make proper-all (like make proper but for all the  modules in modules/*)

Config clean:

make clean-cfg (cleans the compile config)
make clean-modules-cfg (cleans the modules list)

"Reduced" clean:

make local-clean    (cleans only the core, no libs, utils or modules)
make clean-modules  (like make clean, but cleans only the modules)
make clean-libs     (like make clean, but cleans only the libs)
make clean-utils    (like make clean, but cleans only the utils
make proper-modules (like make proper, but only for modules)
make proper-libs    (like make proper, but only for libs)
make proper-utils   (like make proper, but only for utils)


make proper
optional: make cfg  <various cfg. options that should be saved>
(or gmake on non-Linux systems)
make modules 
or make modules exclude_modules="CVS print" etc.

Make tags:

make TAGS

Create a tar.gz with the sources (in ../):

make tar

Create a tar.gz with the binary distribution (in ../):

make bin

Create a gzipped solaris package (in ../):

make sunpkg

Create debian packages (in ../):

make deb





Regenerates the README for all the "default" modules (include_modules,
 skip_modules a.s.o can be used to alter the module list).

make man

Generates a manpage for all the modules that support it (.xml file in the
 module directory).

make modules=modules_k/foo modules-readme

Generates README file for modules_k/foo.


make prefix=/usr/local  install

Note: If you use prefix parameter in make install then you also need
to use this parameter in previous make commands, i.e. make, make modules,
or make all. If you fail to do this then SER will look for the default
configuration file in a wrong directory, because the directory of the
default configuration file is hard coded into ser during compile time. 
When you use a different prefix parameter when installing then the 
directory hard coded in ser and the directory in which the file will be 
installed by make install will not match. (You can specify exact location
of the configuration file using -f parameter of ser).

For example, if you do the following:
make all
make prefix=/ install

Then the installation will put the default configuration file into
/etc/ser/ser.cfg (because prefix is /), but ser will look for the file
in /usr/local/etc/ser/ser.cfg (because there was no prefix parameter
in make all and /usr/local is the default value of prefix).

Workaround is trivial, use the same parameters in all make commands:
make prefix=/ all
make prefix=/ install
or save the desired prefix in the make config (e.g.: make cfg prefix=/).

That applies to other make parameters as well (for example parameters
"modules" or "excluded_modules").

3. Quick-Start Installation Guide

A) Getting Help

This guide gives you instructions on how to set up the SIP Express 
Router (ser) on your box quickly. In case the default configuration
does not fly, check documentation at ser site
to learn how to configure SER for your site.

If the documentation does not resolve your problem you may try contacting 
our user forum by E-mail at serusers@lists.iptel.org -- that is the mailing 
list of ser community. To participate in the mailing list, subscribe at the 
following web address:

To participate in our commercial support program, contact info@iptel.org.
The support program will provide you with most timely and accurate help
for configuration, integration, development and any other technical

B) Disclaimers
Note well the default "quick-start" configuration is very simple in order 
to be easily installable. It provides minimum features. Particularly, 
authentication is by default disabled, which means anyone can register using
any name with the server. (This is on purpose to avoid installation 
dependencies on MySQL which is needed for storing user credentials.)

C) Quick Start

The following step-by step guide gives you instructions how to install the 
sql-free distribution of ser. If you need persistence and authentication, 
then you have to install additional MySql support -- proceed to section D)
after you are finished with C).

1) Download an RPM or debian package from our site
If you don't use an rpm or debian based distribution, try our tar.gz'ed binaries
 (ser-$(version)_$(os)_$(arch).tar.gz, e.g: ser-0.8.8_linux_i386.tar.gz).
If you use Solaris 8 you can try our solaris package.
If you use Gentoo Linux you do not have to download a package.

2) install the package
    rpm -i <package_name>
    dpkg -i <package_name>
    emerge ser
	(or if use only stable packets:
	 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge ser)
    cd /; tar zxvf <package_name>_os_arch.tar.gz
    (it will install in /usr/local/, and the configuration file in
    gunzip <package_name>.gz ; pkgadd -d <package_name>
    pkg_add package_name
3) start the server
RPM + gentoo:
    /etc/init.d/ser start
    ser is started automatically after the install
    (in case something fails you can start it with /etc/init.d/ser start)
    the tar.gz does not include an init.d script, you'll have to create one of
    your own or adapt one from the source distribution (debian/init.d,
    rpm/ser.init.*, gentoo/ser.init)
    You can start ser directly with /usr/local/sbin/ser.
    see tar.gz.
4) optionally, watch server's health using the
   serctl utility
    - to do so, first set the environment variable SIP_DOMAIN to your domain 
      name, e.g., in Bourne shell, call
        export SIP_DOMAIN="myserver.foobar.com"
	- if you are using other than 'localhost' mysql server for maintaining
	  subscriber database, change the variable 'SQL_HOST' to the proper
	  host name in the serctl script
    - run the serctl utility
        /usr/sbin/serctl moni
        /usr/local/sbin/serctl moni (if you installed from a tar.gz or solaris

5) Register with the server using your favorite
   SIP User Agent. You may want to look at configuration
   hints for use of iptel.org site at
   For example, users of Windows Messenger need to set
   in Tools->Options->Accounts the following values:
     Sign-in Name: <username>@<your_server_address>
     Advanced->Configure Settings (on)
     Advanced->Server: <your_server_address>
     Connect Using: UDP

D) ser with Persistent Data Storage

The default configuration is very simple and features many simplifications. 
In particular, it does not authenticate users and loses User Location database 
on reboot. To provide persistence, keep user credentials and remember users' 
locations across reboots, ser can be configured to use MySQL. Before you proceed, 
you need to make sure MySQL is installed on your box. Your MySQL server must be 
configured to deal with a large number of connection. To increase it, set the 
following line in [mysqld] section of your configuration file:

   set-variable    = max_connections=500

1) Download the package containing mysql support for ser from: 
    (rpm and deb provided, most of the binary tar.gz distributions and the 
     solaris package include it; if it is not present you'll have to rebuild
     from the source).
	For gentoo please include 'mysql' to your USE variable in /etc/make.conf
	or give it as variable to the emerge command.
2) install the package
    rpm -i <package_name>
    dpkg -i <package_name>
	emerge ser
	(if do not want to put 'mysql' into your USE variable you can type:
	 USE="mysql" emerge ser)
3) create MySQL tables
	- if you have a previously installed SER on your system, use
    	/usr/sbin/ser_mysql.sh reinstall 
	  to convert your SER database into new structures
	- otherwise, if this is your very first installation, use
    	/usr/sbin/ser_mysql.sh create
	  to create SER database structures
   (you will be prompted for password of MySql "root" user)
4) configure ser to use SQL
    uncomment all lines in configuration file ser.cfg which are related to 
    - loadmodule "/usr/lib/ser/modules/mysql.so"
    - loadmodule "/usr/lib/ser/modules/auth.so"
    - loadmodule "/usr/lib/ser/modules/auth_db.so"
    - modparam("usrloc", "db_mode", 2)
    - modparam("auth", "calculate_ha1", yes)
    - modparam("auth_db", "password_column", "password")
    - if (!www_authorize("iptel.org", "subscriber")) {
        www_challenge("iptel.org", "0"); 
5) be sure to replace realm, the first parameter in www_* actions, 
   with name of your server; some broken UAC implementations don't 
   authenticate otherwise; the authentication command in your
   configuration script should look then like this:
      if (!www_authorize("myserver.foobar.com", "subscriber")) {
        www_challenge("myserver.foobar.com", "0"); 
6) restart the server
    /etc/init.d/ser restart
7) you can now start  managing the server using the serctl utility; 
   you need to first set the environment variable SIP_DOMAIN to your 
   local SIP realm, e.g.,
       export SIP_DOMAIN="myserver.foobar.com"

   a) watch the server status using 'serctl moni'
   b) try to login with your SIP client as user 'admin' with password 'heslo'
   c) try adding new users using 
       'serctl add <name> <password> <email>'

4. Troubleshooting

Q: Windows Messenger authentication fails. 

A: The most likely reason for this problem is a bug in Windows Messenger. 
WM only authenticates if server name in request URI equals authentication 
realm. After a challenge is sent by SIP server, WM does not resubmit the 
challenged request at all and pops up authentication window again. If you 
want to authenticate WM, you need to set up your realm value to equal server 
name. If your server has no name, IP address can be used as realm too.

Q: SIP requests are replied by ser with "483 Too Many Hops" or 
   "513 Message Too Large"

A: In both cases, the reason is probably an error in request routing script 
   which caused an infinite loop. You can easily verify whether this happens 
   by watching SIP traffic on loopback interface. A typical reason for misrouting 
   is a failure to match local domain correctly. If a server fails to recognize 
   a request for itself, it will try to forward it to current URI in believe it 
   would forward them to a foreign domain. Alas, it forwards the request to itself 
   again. This continues to happen until value of max_forwards header field reaches 
   zero or the request grows too big. Solutions is easy: make sure that domain matching 
   is correctly configured. A quick way to achieve that is to introduce a config
   option to ser.cfg: alias=domainname, where domainname shall be replaced with
   name of domain, which you wish to server and which appears in request-URIs.