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README
ratelimit Module Ovidiu Sas Bogdan Vasile Harjoc Hendrik Scholz Edited by Ovidiu Sas Edited by Bogdan Vasile Harjoc Edited by Hendrik Scholz Copyright � 2006 Freenet Cityline GmbH Copyright � 2008-2009 VoIP Embedded Inc. Revision History Revision $Revision: 4594 $ $Date: 2008-08-06 06:08:33 -0400 (Wed, 06 Aug 2008) $ __________________________________________________________ Table of Contents 1. Admin Guide 1.1. Overview 1.2. Use Cases 1.3. Static Rate Limiting Algorithms 1.3.1. Tail Drop Algorithm (TAILDROP) 1.3.2. Random Early Detection Algorithm (RED) 1.3.3. Network Algorithm (NETWORK) 1.4. Dynamic Rate Limiting Algorithms 1.4.1. Feedback Algorithm (FEEDBACK) 1.5. Dependencies 1.5.1. Kamailio Modules 1.5.2. External Libraries or Applications 1.6. Exported Parameters 1.6.1. timer_interval (integer) 1.6.2. queue (integer:string) 1.6.3. pipe (integer:string:integer) 1.6.4. reply_code (integer) 1.6.5. reply_reason (string) 1.7. Exported Functions 1.7.1. rl_check([pvar]) 1.7.2. rl_check_pipe([pipe_no]) 1.7.3. rl_drop([[min ], max]) 1.8. Exported MI Functions 1.8.1. rl_stats 1.8.2. rl_set_pipe 1.8.3. rl_get_pipes 1.8.4. rl_set_queue 1.8.5. rl_get_queues 1.8.6. rl_set_pid 1.8.7. rl_get_pid 1.8.8. rl_push_load 1.8.9. rl_set_dbg 1.9. Known limitations List of Examples 1.1. Set timer_interval parameter 1.2. Set queue parameter 1.3. Set pipe parameter 1.4. Set reply_code parameter 1.5. Set reply_reason parameter 1.6. rl_check usage 1.7. rl_check_pipe usage 1.8. rl_drop usage Chapter 1. Admin Guide 1.1. Overview This module implements rate limiting for SIP requests. In contrast to the PIKE module this limits the flow based on a per SIP request type basis and not per source IP. The MI interface can be used to change tunables while running Kamailio. The module implements the pipe/queue policy from BSD's ipfw manual, with some simplifications. In principle, each specified method is associated with its own queue and a number of queues are connected to a certain pipe (see the queue and pipe params). 1.2. Use Cases Limiting the rate messages are processed on a system directly influences the load. The ratelimit module can be used to protect a single host or to protect an Kamailio cluster when run on the dispatching box in front. A sample configuration snippet might look like this: ... if (is_method("INVITE|REGISTER|SUBSCRIBE") { if (!rl_check()) { rl_drop(); exit; }; }; ... Upon every incoming request listed above rl_check is invoked. It returns an OK code if the current per request load is below the configured threshold. If the load is exceeded the function returns an error and an administrator can discard requests with a stateless response. 1.3. Static Rate Limiting Algorithms The ratelimit module supports two different statc algorithms to be used by rl_check to determine whether a message should be blocked or not. 1.3.1. Tail Drop Algorithm (TAILDROP) This is a trivial algorithm that imposes some risks when used in conjunction with long timer intervals. At the start of each interval an internal counter is reset and incremented for each incoming message. Once the counter hits the configured limit rl_check returns an error. The downside of this algorithm is that it can lead to SIP client synchronization. During a relatively long interval only the first requests (i.e. REGISTERs) would make it through. Following messages (i.e. RE-REGISTERs) will all hit the SIP proxy at the same time when a common Expire timer expired. Other requests will be retransmissed after given time, the same on all devices with the same firmware/by the same vendor. 1.3.2. Random Early Detection Algorithm (RED) Random Early Detection tries to circumvent the synchronization problem imposed by the tail drop algorithm by measuring the average load and adapting the drop rate dynamically. When running with the RED algorithm (enabled by default) Kamailio will return errors to the Kamailio routing engine every n'th packet trying to evenly spread the measured load of the last timer interval onto the current interval. As a negative side effect Kamailio might drop messages although the limit might not be reached within the interval. Decrease the timer interval if you encounter this. 1.3.3. Network Algorithm (NETWORK) This algorithm relies on information provided by network interfaces. The total amount of bytes waiting to be consumed on all the network interfaces is retrieved once every timer_interval seconds. If the returned amount exceeds the limit specified in the modparam, rl_check returns an error. 1.4. Dynamic Rate Limiting Algorithms When running openser on different machines, one has to adjust the drop rates for the static algorithms to maintain a sub 100% load average or packets start getting dropped in the network stack. While this is not in itself difficult, it isn't neither accurate nor trivial: another server taking a notable fraction of the cpu time will require re-tuning the parameters. While tuning the drop rates from the outside based on a certain factor is possible, having the algorithm run inside ratelimit permits tuning the rates based on internal server parameters and is somewhat more flexible (or it will be when support for external load factors - as opposed to cpu load - is added). 1.4.1. Feedback Algorithm (FEEDBACK) Using the PID Controller model (see Wikipedia page), the drop rate is adjusted dynamically based on the load factor so that the load factor always drifts towards the specified limit (or setpoint, in PID terms). As reading the cpu load average is relatively expensive (opening /proc/stat, parsing it, etc), this only happens once every timer_interval seconds and consequently the FEEDBACK value is only at these intervals recomputed. This in turn makes it difficult for the drop rate to adjust quickly. Worst case scenarios are request rates going up/down instantly by thousands - it takes up to 20 seconds for the controller to adapt to the new request rate. Generally though, as real life request rates drift by less, adapting should happen much faster. 1.5. Dependencies 1.5.1. Kamailio Modules The following modules must be loaded before this module: * No dependencies on other Kamailio modules. 1.5.2. External Libraries or Applications The following libraries or applications must be installed before running Kamailio with this module loaded: * None. 1.6. Exported Parameters 1.6.1. timer_interval (integer) The initial length of a timer interval in seconds. All amounts of messages have to be divided by this timer to get a messages per second value. IMPORTANT: A too small value may lead to performance penalties due to timer process overloading. Default value is 10. Example 1.1. Set timer_interval parameter ... modparam("ratelimit", "timer_interval", 5) ... 1.6.2. queue (integer:string) The format of the queue parameter is "pipe_no:method". For each defined method, the algorithm defined by pipe number "pipe_no" will be used. To specify a queue that accepts all methods, use * instead of METHOD. As queues are matched against request methods, you will usually want to have this as the last queue added or other queues with specific methods will never match. At this time, glob or regexp patterns are not supported. Example 1.2. Set queue parameter ... # assign pipe no 0 to method REGISTER # assign pipe no 3 to method INVITE # assign pipe no 2 to all other methods modparam("ratelimit", "queue", "0:REGISTER") modparam("ratelimit", "queue", "3:INVITE") modparam("ratelimit", "queue", "2:*") ... 1.6.3. pipe (integer:string:integer) The format of the pipe param is "pipe_no:algorithm:limit". For each defined pipe, the given algorithm with the given limit will be used. A pipe is characterised by its algorithm and limit (bandwidth, in ipfw terms). When specifying a limit, the unit depends on the algorithm used and doesn't need to be spedified also (eg, for TAILDROP or RED, limit means packets/sec, whereas with the FEEDBACK algorithm, it means [CPU] load factor). Example 1.3. Set pipe parameter ... # define pipe 0 with a limit of 200 pkts/sec using TAILDROP algorithm # define pipe 1 with a limit of 100 pkts/sec using RED algorithm # define pipe 2 with a limit of 50 pkts/sec using TAILDROP algorithm # define pipe 3 with a limit of load factor 80 using FEEDBACK algorithm # define pipe 4 with a limit of 10000 pending bytes in the rx_queue # using NETWORK algorithm modparam("ratelimit", "pipe", "0:TAILDROP:200") modparam("ratelimit", "pipe", "1:RED:100") modparam("ratelimit", "pipe", "2:TAILDROP:50") modparam("ratelimit", "pipe", "3:FEEDBACK:80") modparam("ratelimit", "pipe", "4:NETWORK:10000") ... 1.6.4. reply_code (integer) The code of the reply sent by Kamailio while limiting. Default value is 503. Example 1.4. Set reply_code parameter ... modparam("ratelimit", "reply_code", 505) ... 1.6.5. reply_reason (string) The reason of the reply sent by Kamailio while limiting. Default value is "Server Unavailable". Example 1.5. Set reply_reason parameter ... modparam("ratelimit", "reply_reason", "Limiting") ... 1.7. Exported Functions 1.7.1. rl_check([pvar]) Check the current request against the matched ratelimit algorithm. If no parameter is provided, the queue will be matched based on method type, and then the pipe will be identified based on the matched queue. If a pipe number is provided as a parameter, then the given pipe number will be used for identifying the ratelimit algorithm. The pipe number must be provided via a pseudo variabile. It is recommended to provide the pipe number via an integer pseudovariabile. The method will return an error code if the limit for the matched algorithm is reached. Meaning of the parameters is as follows: * pvar - the pseudovariable holding the pipe id to be used by ratelimit. This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE. Example 1.6. rl_check usage ... # perform queue/pipe match for current method if (!rl_check()) { rl_drop(); exit; }; ... # use pipe no 1 for the current method # set int pvar to 1 $var(p) = 1; if (!rl_check("$var(p)")) { rl_drop(); exit; }; ... # use pipe no 1 for the current method # set str pvar to 1 $var(p) = "1"; if (!rl_check("$var(p)") { rl_drop(); exit; }; ... 1.7.2. rl_check_pipe([pipe_no]) Check the current request against the matched ratelimit algorithm. If no parameter is provided, the queue will be matched based on method type, and then the pipe will be identified based on the matched queue. If a pipe number is provided as a parameter, then the given pipe number will be used for identifying the ratelimit algorithm. The method will return an error code if the limit for the matched algorithm is reached. Meaning of the parameters is as follows: * pipe_no - the pipe id to be used by ratelimit. This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE. Example 1.7. rl_check_pipe usage ... # perform queue/pipe match for current method if (!rl_check_pipe()) { rl_drop(); exit; }; ... # use pipe no 1 for the current method if (!rl_check_pipe("1") { rl_drop(); exit; }; ... 1.7.3. rl_drop([[min ], max]) For the current request, a "503 - Server Unavailable" reply is sent back. The reply may or may not have a "Retry-After" header. If no parameter is given, there will be no "Retry-After" header. If only the max parameter is given, the reply will contain a "Retry-After: max" header. If both min and max params are given, the reply will contain a "Retry-After: random" header with random being a random value between the given min and max. Meaning of the parameters is as follows: * min - the minimum value of "Retry-After" header. * max - the maximum value of "Retry-After" header. This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE. Example 1.8. rl_drop usage ... if (!rl_check()) { # send back a "503 - Server Unavailable" # with a "Retry-After: 5" rl_drop("5"); exit; }; ... 1.8. Exported MI Functions 1.8.1. rl_stats Lists the parameters and variabiles in the ratelimit module. Name: rl_stats Parameters: none MI FIFO Command Format: :rl_stats:_reply_fifo_file_ _empty_line_ 1.8.2. rl_set_pipe Sets the pipe parameters for the given pipe id. Name: rl_set_pipe Parameters: * pipe_id - pipe id. * pipe_algorithm - the algorithm assigned to the given pipe id. * pipe_limit - the limit assigned to the given pipe id. MI FIFO Command Format: :rl_set_pipe:_reply_fifo_file_ 2 RED 10 _empty_line_ 1.8.3. rl_get_pipes Gets the list of in use pipes. Name: rl_get_pipes Parameters: none MI FIFO Command Format: :rl_get_pipes:_reply_fifo_file_ _empty_line_ 1.8.4. rl_set_queue Sets the queue parameters for the given queue id. Name: rl_set_queue Parameters: * queue_id - queue id. * queue_method - the method assigned to the given queue id. * pipe_id - the pipe id assigned to the given queue id. MI FIFO Command Format: :rl_set_queue:_reply_fifo_file_ 3 INVITE 2 _empty_line_ 1.8.5. rl_get_queues Gets the list of in use queues. Name: rl_get_queues Parameters: none MI FIFO Command Format: :rl_get_queues:_reply_fifo_file_ _empty_line_ 1.8.6. rl_set_pid Sets the PID Controller parameters for the Feedback Algorithm. Name: rl_set_pid Parameters: * ki - the integral parameter. * kp - the proportional parameter. * kd - the derivative parameter. MI FIFO Command Format: :rl_set_pid:_reply_fifo_file_ 0.5 0.5 0.5 _empty_line_ 1.8.7. rl_get_pid Gets the list of in use PID Controller parameters. Name: rl_get_pid Parameters: none MI FIFO Command Format: :rl_get_pid:_reply_fifo_file_ _empty_line_ 1.8.8. rl_push_load Force the value of the load parameter. This methos is usefull for testing the Feedback algorithm. Name: rl_push_load Parameters: * load - the forced value of load (it must be greater then 0.0 and smaller then 1.0). MI FIFO Command Format: :rl_push_load:_reply_fifo_file_ 0.85 _empty_line_ 1.8.9. rl_set_dbg This MI function will enable/disable a WARNING debug log exposing the internal counters for each pipe (useful in monitoring the ratelimit internals). Name: rl_set_dbg Parameters: * dbg - the debug value (0 means disable and 1 means enable). MI FIFO Command Format: :rl_set_dbg:_reply_fifo_file_ 1 _empty_line_ 1.9. Known limitations The pipes and queues are stored as static vectors, so no more than MAX_PIPES/MAX_QUEUES can be added without recompilation. * MAX_PIPES - 16 * MAX_QUEUES - 10