<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<!DOCTYPE section PUBLIC '-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN'
	'http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd'>

<section><title>XCAP</title>

<section><title>Introduction</title>

<para>XCAP is a HTTP based protocol for access remote configuration data. Data
is stored in XML format and the XCAP protocol allows to query, modify or delete
parts of such data. This is in detail described in <xref
linkend="pres_rfc_xcap"/>. The XCAP server is server able to handle XCAP requests.
</para>

<para>The XCAP server may be used for storing <quote>presence interesting</quote>
data. From the SIP_ROUTER's point of view these items are interesting:
<itemizedlist>
	<listitem><para>authorization data</para></listitem>
	<listitem><para><quote>buddy lists</quote></para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>

<section><title>XCAP authorization</title>
<para>Definition of authorization documents and theirs usage is specified in <xref 
linkend="pres_draft_common_auth"/> and especially for presence purposes in <xref 
linkend="pres_draft_auth"/>. Both documents are quite common and in SIP_ROUTER's
presence modules implemented only partialy. For more information about XCAP
authorization see details in <xref linkend="pa.xcap"/>.</para>
</section> <!-- XCAP authorization -->

<section><title>Buddy lists</title>
<para>XCAP server may be used for storing lists of users too. These lists may be
used for presence subscriptions - subscription to such list means subscription
to all users on it at once. This reduces number of created subscriptions and may
reduce data transfers between server and client too; but presence documents for
lists of users may be very big and thus require TCP connection.</para>

<para>There may be not only lists for individual users with their contacts but 
there may be other sort of lists representing some <quote>logical
entities</quote> such <quote>businessmen</quote>, <quote>technical
support</quote>, ... which are used in cases like if some customer needs someone
from technical support department and doesn't want to remeber all people
there. Such customer may simply watch presence state of
<quote>technical-support@somewhere.net</quote> if he needs help from them.
</para>

<para>Lists of users - more common resource lists - are defined in <xref
linkend="pres_draft_rls"/> and their usage with SIP in <xref
linkend="pres_draft_rls_sip"/>. These lists are partialy implemented in <link
linkend="pres_rls">RLS module</link>.
For more information about resource lists see details in <xref
linkend="rls.xcap"/>.</para>
</section> <!-- buddy lists -->

<section><title>Manipulation with XCAP documents</title>
<para>Manipulating with XCAP documents is quite simple because XCAP uses
standard HTTP methods like GET, PUT or DELETE. Every web browser may be
used to read XCAP data and it is quite simple to write utility to write data
to XCAP server. These features allow to use XCAP with SIP_ROUTER although there are is 
not much client software supporting it.
</para>
</section> <!-- manipulating documents -->

</section> <!-- XCAP introduction -->

<section id="xcap.examples"><title>XCAP examples</title>
<note><para>XCAP documents examples published there doesn't use correct XML
namespaces due to problems with XCAP server used for tests (problems querying
partial documents with namespaces).</para></note>

<example><title>Storing XCAP documents</title>
<para>There is a sample script in Python which stores XCAP documents onto a XCAP
server. Documents are:
<itemizedlist>
	<listitem><para><link linkend="rls.xml">rls-services document</link> stored
	under name <filename>index</filename>
	</para></listitem>
	<listitem><para><link linkend="list.xml">buddy list</link> for user Smith
	stored under name <filename>smith</filename></para></listitem>
	<listitem><para><link linkend="pres-rules.xml">presence authorization
	document</link> for user Smith stored under name
	<filename>presence-rules.xml</filename></para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
<programlisting>
#!/usr/bin/python
import httplib, urllib

machine = "localhost"

#
# store rls-services document
#

uri = "/xcap-root/rls-services/global/index"
headers = {"Content-Type": "application/rls-services+xml"}
bf = file("rls.xml", "r")
body = bf.read(65536);
conn = httplib.HTTPConnection(machine)
conn.request("PUT", uri, body, headers)

response = conn.getresponse()
print "Storing rls-services document: ", response.status, response.reason
data = response.read()
conn.close()

#
# store resource-list document for user
#

uri = "/xcap-root/resource-lists/users/smith/resource-list.xml"
headers = {"Content-Type": "application/resource-lists+xml"}
bf = file("list.xml", "r")
body = bf.read(65536);
conn = httplib.HTTPConnection(machine)
conn.request("PUT", uri, body, headers)

response = conn.getresponse()
print "Storing resource-lists document: ", response.status, response.reason
data = response.read()
conn.close()

#
# store presence authorization rules
#

uri = "/xcap-root/pres-rules/users/smith/presence-rules.xml"
headers = {"Content-Type": "application/pres-rules+xml"}
bf = file("presence-rules.xml", "r")
body = bf.read(65536);
conn = httplib.HTTPConnection(machine)
conn.request("PUT", uri, body, headers)

response = conn.getresponse()
print "Storing pres-rules document: ", response.status, response.reason
data = response.read()
conn.close()
</programlisting>
</example>

<example id="list.xml"><title>Example resource list document (list.xml)</title>
<para>Simple buddy lists which shows the possibility of nested lists.
</para>
<programlisting>
&lt;?xml version="1.0" ?&gt;
&lt;resource-lists&gt;
	&lt;list name="default"&gt;
		&lt;list name="work"&gt;
			&lt;entry uri="sip:someone@someorg.org"&gt;
				&lt;display-name&gt;Someone&lt;/display-name&gt;
			&lt;/entry&gt;
			&lt;entry uri="sip:smith@someorg.org"&gt;
				&lt;display-name&gt;Jonathan Smith&lt;/display-name&gt;
			&lt;/entry&gt;
		&lt;/list&gt;
		&lt;entry uri="sip:vasek@someorg.org"&gt;
			&lt;display-name&gt;Vasek&lt;/display-name&gt;
		&lt;/entry&gt;
		&lt;entry uri="sip:vaclav.picbumprask@someorg.org"&gt;
			&lt;display-name&gt;Vaclav Picbumprask&lt;/display-name&gt;
		&lt;/entry&gt;
	&lt;/list&gt;
&lt;/resource-lists&gt;
</programlisting>
</example>

<example id="rls.xml"><title>Example rls-services document (rls.xml)</title>
<para>Example document which is processed by Resource List Server (RLS module).
This document can contain references to users buddy lists like
<quote>smith-list@someorg.org</quote> which points to buddy list for user smith
named <quote>default</quote> and can contain such lists directly.
<!--<caution><para>EyeBeam stores user's <quote>buddy list</quote> in 
<filename>&lt;XCAP-root&gt;/users/&lt;username&gt;/resource-list.xml</filename>, 
not in
<filename>&lt;XCAP-root&gt;/users/&lt;username&gt;</filename> which was used in 
these examples.</para></caution>-->
</para>
<programlisting>
&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
&lt;rls-services&gt;
	&lt;service uri="sip:smith-list@someorg.org"&gt;
		&lt;resource-list&gt;http://localhost/xcap-root/resource-lists/users/smith/resource-list.xml/~~/resource-lists/list[@name=%22default%22]&lt;/resource-list&gt;
		&lt;packages&gt;
			&lt;package&gt;presence&lt;/package&gt;
		&lt;/packages&gt;
	&lt;/service&gt;
	&lt;service uri="sip:cz@someorg.org"&gt;
		&lt;list name="czech part of some org"&gt;
			&lt;entry uri="sip:abc@someorg.org"&gt;
				&lt;display-name&gt;A B&lt;/display-name&gt;
			&lt;/entry&gt;
			&lt;entry uri="sip:cde@someorg.org"&gt;
				&lt;display-name&gt;C D&lt;/display-name&gt;
			&lt;/entry&gt;
			&lt;entry uri="sip:efg@someorg.org"&gt;
				&lt;display-name&gt;Ef Ge&lt;/display-name&gt;
			&lt;/entry&gt;
		&lt;/list&gt;
		&lt;packages&gt;
			&lt;package&gt;presence&lt;/package&gt;
			&lt;package&gt;email&lt;/package&gt;
		&lt;/packages&gt;
	&lt;/service&gt;
&lt;/rls-services&gt;
</programlisting>
</example>

<example id="pres-rules.xml"><title>Example presence authorization document (presence-rules.xml)</title>
<para>This document contains two rules: 
<itemizedlist>
	<listitem><para><quote>white list</quote>, which allows
	access to presence information from all from domain someorg.org
	</para></listitem>
	<listitem><para><quote>black list</quote>, which denies access for user
	nemo@somewhere.net</para></listitem>	
</itemizedlist></para>
<programlisting>
&lt;?xml version="1.0" ?&gt;
&lt;ruleset xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:common-policy" xmlns:pr="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pres-rules"&gt;
	&lt;rule id="blacklist"&gt;
		&lt;conditions&gt;
			&lt;identity&gt;
				&lt;id&gt;sip:nemo@somewhere.net&lt;/id&gt;
			&lt;/identity&gt;
		&lt;/conditions&gt;
		&lt;actions&gt;
			&lt;pr:sub-handling&gt;block&lt;/pr:sub-handling&gt;
		&lt;/actions&gt;
		&lt;transformations/&gt;
	&lt;/rule&gt;
	
	&lt;rule id="whitelist"&gt;
		&lt;conditions&gt;
			&lt;identity&gt;
				&lt;domain domain="someorg.org"/&gt;
			&lt;/identity&gt;
		&lt;/conditions&gt;
		&lt;actions&gt;
			&lt;pr:sub-handling&gt;allow&lt;/pr:sub-handling&gt;
		&lt;/actions&gt;
		&lt;transformations/&gt;
	&lt;/rule&gt;
&lt;/ruleset&gt;
</programlisting>
</example>

</section>

<!-- There
exist extensions for particular types of configuration - for purpose of this
document only configuration from presence area will be mentioned.
</para>-->

<section><title>XCAP server simulation</title>
<para>XCAP server is a HTTP server with some features like document validation
or ability of working with parts of stored documents. If you have no XCAP
server, you can simulate it using standard web server. There are not many XCAP
servers available today, thus the simulation may be interesting for - at least -
demonstration or testing purposes.
</para>

<para>There are some disadvantages when the XCAP server is only simulated:
<itemizedlist>
	<listitem><para>no XML document validation</para></listitem>
	<listitem><para>unable to work with XPointer terms (mainly unable to work 
	with parts of documents)</para></listitem>
	<listitem><para>possible synchronization problems (!)</para>
		<para>More clients used by one user working with the same document
		 (authorization document, buddy list) may rewrite it to each other.
		 When using regular XCAP server this will be done in one atomic query.
		 In the case of simulation it is needed to download whole document,
		 modify it and put it back.</para>
	 </listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>

<para>Depending on your needs you can
<itemizedlist>
	<listitem><para>create hierarchical directory structure of XML documents according to
	<xref linkend="pres_rfc_xcap"/></para></listitem>
	<listitem><para>allow upload (handle HTTP PUT method) which stores documents into the 
	directory structure</para></listitem>
	<listitem><para>improve upload to validate documents according to schema
	(every sort of XCAP document should have their XSD published)</para></listitem>
	<listitem><para>allow document removing (handle DELETE method)</para></listitem>
	<listitem><para>process HTTP GET requests with a CGI-script so it processes
	queries for partial documents</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>

<section><title>Directory structure</title>
<para>Presence modules use XCAP documents stored in structure like this:
<itemizedlist><title>xcap-root</title>
	<listitem><para><filename>pres-rules</filename></para>
	<itemizedlist>
		<listitem><para><filename>users</filename></para>
		<itemizedlist>
			<listitem><para><filename>smith</filename></para>
			<itemizedlist>
				<listitem><para><filename>presence-rules.xml</filename> (file
				containg presence authorization rules for user smith)</para></listitem>
			</itemizedlist>
			</listitem>
			<listitem><para><filename>joe</filename></para>
			<itemizedlist>
				<listitem><para><filename>presence-rules.xml</filename> (file containing
				presence authorization rules for user joe)</para></listitem>
			</itemizedlist>
			</listitem>
			<listitem><para>... (directories for other users)</para></listitem>
		</itemizedlist>
		</listitem>
	</itemizedlist></listitem>
	
	<listitem><para><filename>resource-lists</filename></para>
	<itemizedlist>
		<listitem><para><filename>users</filename></para>
		<itemizedlist>
			<listitem><para><filename>smith</filename></para>
			<itemizedlist>
				<listitem><para><filename>resource-list.xml</filename> (file
				containing resources lists for user smith)</para></listitem>
			</itemizedlist>
			</listitem>
			<listitem><para><filename>joe</filename></para>
			<itemizedlist>
				<listitem><para><filename>resource-list.xml</filename> (file
				containing resource lists for user joe)</para></listitem>
			</itemizedlist>
			</listitem>
			<listitem><para>... (directories for other users)</para></listitem>
		</itemizedlist>
		</listitem>
		<!-- rls-services globals used instead this
		<listitem><para><filename>global</filename></para>
		<itemizedlist>
			<listitem><para><filename>index</filename> (file containing global
			resource lists)</para></listitem>
		</itemizedlist>
		</listitem>-->
	</itemizedlist></listitem>
	
	<listitem><para><filename>rls-services</filename></para>
	<itemizedlist>
		<listitem><para><filename>global</filename></para>
		<itemizedlist>
			<listitem><para><filename>index</filename> (file containing global
			rls-services documents)</para></listitem>
		</itemizedlist>
		</listitem>
	</itemizedlist></listitem>
	
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section> <!-- directory structure -->

<section><title>Usage with SIP_ROUTER</title>
<para>You don't need a full XCAP server for presence authorization documents -
these are read as standalone documents from directories of standalone users.
</para>

<para>For resource lists you have to set <link linkend="rls.parameters">RLS module 
parameters</link> <varname>mode</varname> and/or
<varname>reduce_xcap_needs</varname> 
to work as much as possible with XCAP server simulation.
</para>
</section>

<section><title>XCAP simulation examples</title>
<para>Examples presented here can be used as simple XCAP server simulation. It
is able to handle PUT method (for whole XML documents).
</para>

<example><title>Apache2 configuration</title>
<programlisting><![CDATA[
...
Alias /xcap-root /var/simulated-xcap-root
<Directory /var/simulated-xcap-root>
	Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
	Script PUT /cgi-bin/upload
	<Limit PUT DELETE GET>
		Order Allow,Deny
		Deny from none
		Allow from all
	</Limit>
</Directory>
...
]]></programlisting>
<para>If apache is running on machine with SIP_ROUTER, you can use as xcap-root
<literal>http://localhost/xcap-root</literal>.
</para>
</example>

<example><title>Simple (and dangerous) cgi-script for upload</title>
<para>This code is written in C and it is able to create directories if needed, but its usage in
presented form is realy unsafe! You have to compile it and put into directory
with other CGI scripts.</para>
<programlisting><![CDATA[
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/types.h>

void copy_file(const char *filename)
{
	char buf[2048];
	int r;
	FILE *f;
	
	f = fopen(filename, "wb");
	if (f) {
		while (!feof(stdin)) {
			r = fread(buf, 1, sizeof(buf), stdin);
			fwrite(buf, 1, r, f);
		}
		fclose(f);
	}
}

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
	char *filename, *x;
	char tmp[1024];
	int res = 0;
	
	filename = getenv ("PATH_TRANSLATED");

	strcpy(tmp, filename);
	x = strrchr(tmp, '/');
	if (x) {
		*x = 0;
		res = mkdir(tmp, 0755);		/* ! dangerous ! */
	}
	else {
		printf("Status: 500\n");
		printf("Content-Type: text/html\n\n");
		printf("<html><head/>\n<body>Incorrect filename</body></html>\n");	
		return -1;
	}
	
	copy_file(filename); /* ! dangerous ! */
		
	printf("Status: 200\n");
	printf("Content-Type: text/html\n\n");
	printf("<html><head><title>Upload</title>\n</head>\n<body>Finished...</body></html>\n");
	
	return 0;
}
]]></programlisting>
</example>

</section><!-- XCAP simulation examples -->

</section> <!-- XCAP server simulation -->

</section>