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<section id="reference" xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude">
    <sectioninfo>
	<revhistory>
	    <revision>
		<revnumber>$Revision$</revnumber>
		<date>$Date$</date>
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    </sectioninfo>

	<title>Reference</title>

	<section id="coreoptions">
	    <title>Core Options</title>
	    <para>Core options are located in beginning of configuration file and
	    affect behavior of the server.</para>
	    <itemizedlist>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>debug</varname> - Set log level, this is number between 0 and 9. Default
			is 0.

		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>fork</varname> - If set to yes, the server will spawn children. If set to no, the main
			process will be processing all messages. Default is yes.
			<note>
			    <para>
				Disabling child spawning is useful mainly for
				debugging. When <varname>fork</varname> is turned off,
				some features are unavailable:
				there is no attendant process, no pid file is generated,
				and server listens only at one address. Make sure you
				are debugging the same interface at which
				<application>ser</application> listens.
				The easiest way to do so is to set the interface using
				<varname>listen</varname> option explicitly.
				</para>
			</note>
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>log_stderror</varname> - If set to yes, the server will print its debugging
			information to standard error output. If set to no, <command>syslog</command>
			will be used. Default is no (printing to syslog).
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>listen</varname> - list of all IP addresses or hostnames SER should listen on.
			<note>
				<para>
					This parameter may repeat several times, then SER will
					listen on all addresses. For example, the following
					command-line options (equivalent to "listen" config
					option) may be used:
					<command>
						ser -l foo  -l bar -p 5061 -l x -l y
					</command>
					will listen on foo:5060, bar:5061 &amp; x:5061 &amp; y:5061

				</para>
			</note>
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>alias</varname> - Add IP addresses or hostnames to list of name aliases.
			All requests with hostname matching an alias will satisfy the condition
			"uri==myself".
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>dns</varname> - Uses dns to check if it is necessary to add a "received=" field to a via.
			Default is no.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>rev_dns</varname> - Same as dns but use reverse DNS. Default is no.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>port</varname> - Listens on the specified port (default 5060). It applies to the last
			address specified in listen and to all the following that do not have a corresponding "port" option.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>maxbuffer</varname> - Maximum receive buffer size which will not be exceeded by
			the auto-probing procedure even if the OS allows. Default value is MAX_RECV_BUFFER_SIZE,
			which is 256k.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>children</varname> - Specifies how many processes should be started
		        for each transport protocol.
		    Running multiple children allows a server to
			server multiple requests in parallel when request processing block (e.g., on DNS
			lookup). Note that <application>ser</application> typically spawns additional
			processes, such as timer process or FIFO server. If FIFO server is turned on,
			you can watch running processes using the <application>serctl</application>
			utility.


		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>check_via</varname> - Turn on or off Via host checking when forwarding replies.
			Default is no.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>syn_branch</varname> - Shall the server use stateful synonym branches? It is faster but not
			reboot-safe. Default is yes.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>memlog</varname> - Debugging level for final memory statistics report. Default is L_DBG --
			memory statistics are dumped only if <varname>debug</varname> is set high.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>sip_warning</varname> - Should replies include extensive warnings? By default yes,
			it is good for trouble-shooting.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>fifo</varname> - FIFO special file pathname, for example "/tmp/ser_fifo". Default is
			no filename -- no FIFO server is started then. We recommend to set it so that
			accompanying applications such as <application>serweb</application> or
			<application>serctl</application> can communicate with
			<application>ser</application>.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>fifo_mode</varname> - Permissions of the FIFO special file.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>server_signature</varname> - Should locally-generated messages include server's signature?
			By default yes, it is good for trouble-shooting.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>reply_to_via</varname> - A hint to reply modules
			whether they should send reply
			to IP advertised in Via.
			Turned off by default, which means that replies are
			sent to IP address from which requests came from.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>user | uid</varname> - uid to be used by the server.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>group | gid</varname> - gid to be used by the server.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>mhomed</varname> -- enable calculation of
			outbound interface; useful on multihomed servers,
			see <xref linkend="mhomed"/>.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>loadmodule</varname> - Specifies a module to be loaded (for example "/usr/lib/ser/modules/tm.so")
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<varname>modparam</varname> - Module parameter configuration. The commands takes three parameters:
			<itemizedlist>
			    <listitem>
				<para>
				    <emphasis>module</emphasis> - Module in which the parameter resides.
				</para>
			    </listitem>
			    <listitem>
				<para>
				    <emphasis>parameter</emphasis> - Name of the parameter to be configured.
				</para>
			    </listitem>
			    <listitem>
				<para>
				    <emphasis>value</emphasis> - New value of the parameter.
				</para>
			    </listitem>
			</itemizedlist>
		    </para>
		</listitem>
	    </itemizedlist>
	</section>
	<section id="builtinref">
	    <title>Core Commands</title>


	    <itemizedlist id="routeblocks">
		<title>Route Blocks and Process Control</title>
		<!--<para>
		    Route block and process control keywords determine
		    the order in which SIP requests are processed.
		</para>-->
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>route[number]{...}</command> - This marks a "route block" in configuration files.
			route blocks are basic building blocks of <application>ser</application> scripts.
			Each route block contains a sequence of
			<application>SER</application> actions enclosed in braces. Multiple route blocks
			can be included in a configuration file.
			When script execution begins on request receipt,
			route block number 0 is entered. Other route blocks serve as a kind of sub-routines and
			may be entered by calling the action <command>route(n)</command>,
			where n is number of the block. The action <command>break</command>
			exits currently executed route block. It stops script execution for
			route block number 0 or returns to calling route block otherwise.
		    </para>
		    <example>
			<title>route</title>
			<programlisting>
route[0] {
        # call routing block number 2
	route(2);
}

route[2] {
    forward("host.foo.bar", 5060);
}
</programlisting>
		    </example>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>failure_route</command> is used to restart request processing
			when a negative reply for a previously relayed request is received. It is only
			used along with tm module, which stores the original requests and
			can return to their processing later. To activate processing
			of a <command>failure_route</command> block, call the TM action
			<command>t_on_failure(route_number)</command> before calling
			<command>t_relay</command>. When a negative reply
			comes back, the desired <command>failure_route</command>
			will be entered and processing of the original request may
			continue.
			</para>
		    <para>
			The set of actions applicable from within
			<command>failure_route</command> blocks is limited.
			Permitted actions are URI-manipulation actions, logging and
			sending stateful replies using <command>t_reply</command>.
		    </para>
		    <example>
			<title>failure_route</title>
			<programlisting>
failure_route[1] {
    # for some reason, the original forwarding attempt
    # failed, try at another URI
    append_branch("sip:nonsense@iptel.org");
    # if this new attempt fails too, try another failure_route
    t_on_failure("2");
	t_relay();
}
</programlisting>
		    </example>
		</listitem>

		<listitem>
		    <para>
		    	The action <command>break</command> exits currently executed route block.
			It stops script execution for route block number 0 or returns to calling
			route block otherwise.
			<note>
			    <para>
				We recommend to use <command>break</command>
				after any request forwarding or replying. This practice
				helps to avoid erroneous scripts that
				continue execution and mistakenly send another reply or
				forward a request to another place, resulting in
				protocol confusion.
			    </para>
			</note>
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> break;
		    </para>
		</listitem>

		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>route(n)</command> - call routing block route[n]{...};
			when the routing block n finishes processing, control is passed
			back to current block and processing continues.
		    </para>
		</listitem>

		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>if (condition) statement</command> - Conditional statement.
		    </para>
		    <example>
			<title>Use of <command>if</command></title>
			<programlisting>
if (method=="REGISTER) {
    log("register received\n");
};
</programlisting>
		    </example>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>if - else</command> - If-Else Conditional statement.
		    </para>
		    <example>
			<title>Use of <command>if-else</command></title>
			<programlisting>
if (method=="REGISTER) {
    log("register received\n");
} else {
    log("non-register received\n");
};
</programlisting>
		    </example>
		</listitem>

	    </itemizedlist>
	    <itemizedlist>
		<title>Flag Manipulation</title>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>setflag</command> - Set flag in the message.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> setflag(1);
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>resetflag</command> - Reset flag in the message.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> resetflag(1);
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>isflagset</command> - Test whether a particular flag is set.
		    </para>
		    <example>
			<title>isflagset</title>
			<programlisting>
if (isflagset(1)) {
    ....
};
</programlisting>
		    </example>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<function>setavpflag(avp, flag_id)</function> - Sets a flag in the
			AVP(s). The command simply set custom flag of AVP. The flags
			may be used in script using <function>isavpflagset</function>
			or in a module to perform specific operation on marked AVPs.
			Flag identifier must be declared via <emphasis>avpflags</emphasis>
			statement.
		    </para>
		    <example>
			<title>setavpflag</title>
			<programlisting>
avpflags
	my_flag,
	your_flag;
....
setavpflag($avp[1], "my_flag");
....
if (isavpflagset($avp2, "your_flag")) {

}
</programlisting>
		    </example>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<function>resetavpflag(avp, flag_id)</function> - Same as command
			<function>setavpflag</function> - only resetavpflag will be
			called instead of setavpflag.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<function>isavpflagset(avp, flag_id)</function> - Test if the avp flag
			is set or not.
		    </para>
		</listitem>



	    </itemizedlist>
	    <itemizedlist>
		<title>Manipulation of URI and Destination Set</title>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>rewritehost | sethost | seth</command> - Rewrite host part of the Request URI.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> sethost("foo.bar.com");
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>rewritehostport | sethostport | sethp</command> - Rewrite host and port part of the Request URI.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> sethostport("foo.bar.com:5060");
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>rewriteuser | setuser | setu</command> - Rewrite or set username part of the Request URI.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> setuser("joe");
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>rewriteuserpass | setuserpass | setup</command> - Rewrite or set username and password part
			of the Request URI.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> setuserpass("joe:mypass");
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>rewriteport | setport | setp</command> - Rewrite or set port of the Request URI.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> setport("5060");
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>rewriteuri | seturi</command> - Rewrite or set the whole Request URI.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> seturi("sip:joe@foo.bar.com:5060");
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>revert_uri</command> - Revert changes made to the Request URI and use original Request URI.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> revert_uri();
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>prefix</command> - Add prefix to username in Request URI.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> prefix("123");
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>strip</command> - Remove first n characters of username in Request URI.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> strip(3);
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>append_branch</command> - Append a new destination to destination set of the message.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<example>
			    <title>Use of <command>append_branch</command></title>
			    <programlisting>
# redirect to these two destinations: a@foo.bar and b@foo.bar
# 1) rewrite the current URI
rewriteuri("sip:a@foo.bar");
# 2) append another entry to the destination ser
append_branch("sip:b@foo.bar");
# redirect now
sl_send_reply("300", "redirection");
			    </programlisting>
			</example>
		    </para>
		</listitem>
	    </itemizedlist>
	    <itemizedlist>
		<title>Message Forwarding</title>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>forward(uri, port)</command> - Forward the request to given
			destination statelessly.  The uri and port parameters may take special
			values 'uri:host'
			and 'uri:port' respectively, in which case SER forwards to destination
			set in current URI. All other elements in a destination set are
			ignored by stateless forwarding.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> forward("foo.bar.com"); # port defaults to 5060
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>send</command> - Send the message as is to a third party
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> send("foo.bar.com");
		    </para>
		</listitem>
	    </itemizedlist>
	    <itemizedlist>
		<title>Logging</title>


		<listitem>

		    <para>
			<command>log([level], message)</command> - Log a message.
		    </para>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>Example:</emphasis> log(1, "This is a message with high log-level set to 1\n");
		    </para>
		    <para>
			Logging is very useful for troubleshooting or attracting administrator's
			attention to unusual situations. <application>ser</application>
			reports log messages to <application>syslog</application>
			facility unless it is configured to print them to <filename>stderr</filename>
			with the <varname>log_stderr</varname> configuration option. Log messages
			are only issued if their log level exceeds threshold set with the
			<varname>debug</varname> configuration option. If log level is omitted,
			messages are issued at log level 4.
		</para>
		</listitem>

	    </itemizedlist>




	    <itemizedlist>
		<title>Miscellaneous</title>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<command>len_gt</command> - If length of the message is greater than value given as parameter, the
			command will return 1 (indicating true). Otherwise -1 (indicating false) will be returned. It may
			take 'max_len' as parameter, in which case message size is limited
			to internal buffer size BUF_SIZE (3040 by default).
		    </para>
		    <example>
			<title>Use of <command>len_gt</command></title>
			<programlisting>
# deny all requests larger in size than 1 kilobyte
if (len_gt(1024)) {
    sl_send_reply("513", "Too big");
    break;
};
			</programlisting>
		    </example>
		</listitem>
	    </itemizedlist>
	</section>
	<section>
	    <title>Command Line Parameters</title>
	    <note>
		<para>
		    Command-Line parameters may be overridden by configuration
		    file options which take precedence over them.
		</para>
	    </note>
	    <itemizedlist>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-h</emphasis> - Displays a short usage description, including all available options.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-c</emphasis> - Performs loop checks and computes branches.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-r</emphasis> - Uses dns to check if it is necessary to add a "received=" field to a via.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-R</emphasis> - Same as -r but uses reverse dns.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-v</emphasis> - Turns on via host checking when forwarding replies.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-d</emphasis> - Turns on debugging, multiple -d increase debugging level.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-D</emphasis> - Runs ser in the foreground (it doesn't fork into daemon mode).
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-E</emphasis> - Sends all the log messages to stderr.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-V</emphasis> - Displays the version number.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-f config-file</emphasis> - Reads the configuration from "config-file" (default ./ser.cfg).
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-l address</emphasis> - Listens on the specified address. Multiple -l mean listening
			on multiple addresses. The default behavior is to listen on all the ipv4 interfaces.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-p port</emphasis> - Listens on the specified port (default 5060). It applies to the last
			address specified with -l and to all the following that do not have a corresponding -p.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-n processes-no</emphasis> - Specifies the number of children processes forked per
			interface (default 8).
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-b max_rcv_buf_size</emphasis> - Maximum receive buffer size which will not be exceeded by
			the auto-probing procedure even if the OS allows.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-m shared_mem_size</emphasis> - Size of the shared memory which will be allocated (in Megabytes).
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-w working-dir</emphasis> - Specifies the working directory. In the very improbable event
			that will crash, the core file will be generated here.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-t chroot-dir</emphasis> - Forces ser to chroot after reading the config file.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-u uid</emphasis> - Changes the user id under which ser runs.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-g gid</emphasis> - Changes the group id under which ser runs.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-P pid-file</emphasis> - Creates a file containing the pid of the main ser process.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
		<listitem>
		    <para>
			<emphasis>-i fifo-path</emphasis> - Creates a fifo, useful for monitoring ser status.
		    </para>
		</listitem>
	    </itemizedlist>
	</section>




	<section id="modulereference">
	    <title>Modules</title>
	    <para>
		Module description is currently located in READMEs of
		respective module directories. <filename>README-MODULES</filename>
		lists all available modules, including their maturity status.
		In the current <application>ser</application>
		distribution, there are the following modules:
		<itemizedlist>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				acc
			    </emphasis>
			    -- call accounting using <application>syslog</application> facility.
				RADIUS and mysql support can be compiled in.
			    Depends on tm.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				auth, auth_db, auth_radius
			    </emphasis>
			    -- digest authentication. Depends on sl and mysql.
			</para>
		    </listitem>

			<listitem>
				<para>
					<emphasis>domain</emphasis> -- checks URIs whether they belong
					in a list of served domains or not.
				</para>
			</listitem>



			<listitem>
				<para>
					<emphasis>ENUM</emphasis> -- E.164 phone number resolution using ENUM.
				</para>
			</listitem>


		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				exec
			    </emphasis>
			    -- execution of shell programs.
			</para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				group, group_radius
			    </emphasis>
			    -- checks membership of users in groups
			</para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				jabber
			    </emphasis> -- gateway between SIMPLE and Jabber instant messaging. Depends
			    on tm and mysql.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				maxfwd
			    </emphasis>
			    -- checking max-forwards header field.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>msilo</emphasis>

			-- message silo. Store for undelivered instant messages. Depends on tm and mysql.
			    </para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				mysql
			    </emphasis>
			    -- mysql database back-end.
			    </para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
					nathelper
			    </emphasis>
			    -- facilitates NAT traversal for symmetric SIP phones such as ATA.
			    </para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
					pa
			    </emphasis>
			    -- presence agent
			    </para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				registrar, usrloc
			    </emphasis>
			    -- User Location database. Works in in-memory mode or with mysql persistence
			    support. Depends on sl, and on mysql if configured for use with mysql.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				rr
			    </emphasis>
			    -- Record Routing (strict and loose)
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				sl
			    </emphasis>
			    -- stateless User Agent server.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				sms
			    </emphasis>
			    -- SIMPLE/SMS gateway. Depends on tm. Takes special hardware.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
			<listitem>
			<para>
				<emphasis>textops</emphasis> -- textual database back-end.
			</para>
			</listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				tm
			    </emphasis>
			    -- transaction manager (stateful processing).
			</para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    <emphasis>
				uri, uri_radius
			    </emphasis>
			    -- checks digest identity against header URIs or a database list
			</para>
		    </listitem>

		</itemizedlist>
	    </para>
	    <para>
		The most frequently used actions exported by modules are summarized
		in <xref linkend="moduleactions"/>. For a full explanation of
		module actions, see documentation in respective module directories
		in source distribution of <application>ser</application>.
	    </para>
	    <table id="moduleactions">
		<title>Frequently Used Module Actions</title>
		<tgroup cols="4">
		    <thead>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				Command
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				Modules
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				Parameters
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				Comments
			    </entry>
			</row>
		    </thead>

		    <tbody>

			<row>
			    <entry>
				append_hf
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				textops
				</entry>
			    <entry>
				header field
				</entry>
			    <entry>
				append a header field to the end of request's header
				</entry>
			    </row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				check_from
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				uri
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				none
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				check if username in from header field matches authentication id
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				check_to
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				uri
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				none
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				check if username in To header field matched authentication id
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				exec_dset
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				exec
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				command name
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				execute an external command and replace destination set with
				its output
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				exec_msg
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				exec
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				command name
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				execute an external command and pass received SIP request
				to its input
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				is_user
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				uri
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				user id
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				returns true if request credentials belong to a user
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				is_user_in
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				auth
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				user, group
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				check if user is member of a group; user can be gained
				from request URI ("Request-URI"), To header field ("To"),
				From header field ("From") or digest credentials
				("Credentials")
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				lookup
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				usrloc
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				table name
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				attempt to translate request URI using user location database;
				returns false if no contact for user found;
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				loose_route
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				rr
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				none
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				process loose routes in requests
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				mf_process_maxfwd_header
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				maxfwd
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				default max_forwards value
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				return true, if request's max_forwards value has not
				reached zero yet; if none is included in the request,
				set it to value in parameter
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				proxy_authorize
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				auth
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				realm, subscriber table
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				returns true if requests contains proper credentials, false
				otherwise
			    </entry>
			</row>






			<row>
			    <entry>
				proxy_challenge
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				auth
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				realm, qop
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				challenge user to submit digest credentials; qop may be turned
				off for backwards compatibility with elderly implementations
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				record_route
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				rr
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				none
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				record-route a request
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				replace
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				textops
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				RegExp, Substitute
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				find the first occurrence of a string matching the regular
				expression in header or body and replace it with a substitute
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				replace_all
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				textops
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				RegExp, Substitute
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				find all occurrences of a string matching the regular
				expression in header or body and replace it with a substitute
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				save
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				usrloc
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				table name
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				for use in registrar: save content of Contact header fields
				in user location database and reply with 200
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				search
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				textops
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				regular expression
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				search for a regular expression match in request header of body
			    </entry>
			</row>

			<row>
			    <entry>
				sl_send_reply
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				sl
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				status code, reason phrase
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				reply a request statelessly
			    </entry>
			</row>

			<row>
			    <entry>
				t_relay
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				tm
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				none
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				stateful forwarding to locations in current destination set
			    </entry>
			</row>

			<row>
			    <entry>
				t_on_failure
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				tm
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				failure_route number
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				set failure_route block which shall be entered if stateful
				forwarding fails
			    </entry>
			</row>

			<row>
			    <entry>
				t_replicate
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				tm
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				host, port number
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				replicate a request to a destination
			    </entry>
			</row>


		    </tbody>
		</tgroup>
	    </table>
	</section> <!-- modules -->
	<section id="fiforeference">
	    <title>FIFO Commands Reference</title>
	    <para>
		This section lists currently supported FIFO commands. Some of them are
		built-in in <application>ser</application> core, whereas
		others are exported by modules. The most important exporters are now
		tm and usrloc module. tm FIFO commands allow users to initiate transactions
		without knowledge of underlying SIP stack. usrloc FIFO commands allow
		users to access in-memory user-location database. Note that that is the
		only way how to affect content of the data-base in real-time. Changes
		to MySql database do not affect in-memory table unless <application>ser</application>
		is restarted.
	    </para>
	    <table>

		<title>FIFO Commands</title>
		<tgroup cols="4">
		    <thead>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				Command
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				Module
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				Parameters
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				Comments
			    </entry>
			</row>
		    </thead>
		    <tbody>
			<row>
			    <entry>
				ps
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				core
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				none
			    </entry>
			    <entry>
				prints running <application>ser</application> processes
			    </entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>which</entry>
			    <entry>core</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>

			    <entry>prints list of available FIFO commands</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>arg</entry>
			    <entry>core</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>prints list of command-line arguments with which
				<application>ser</application> was started</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>pwd</entry>
			    <entry>core</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>prints <application>ser</application>'s working
			    directory</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>version</entry>
			    <entry>core</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>prints version of <application>ser</application></entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>uptime</entry>
			    <entry>core</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>prints <application>ser</application>'s running time</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>sl_stats</entry>
			    <entry>sl</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>prints statistics for sl module</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>t_stats</entry>
			    <entry>tm</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>print statistics for tm module</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>t_hash</entry>
			    <entry>tm</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>print occupation of transaction table (mainly for debugging)</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>t_uac_dlg</entry>
			    <entry>tm</entry>
			    <entry>method, request URI, outbound URI (if none, empty line with a single dot),
					dot-line-terminated header fields, optionally dot-line terminated message
					body.
				</entry>

			    <entry>initiate a transaction.
					From and To header fields must be present in header field list,
					so does Content-Type if body is present. If CSeq, CallId and From-tag
					are not present, ephemeral values are generated. Content_length is
					calculated automatically if body present.
				</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>ul_stats</entry>
			    <entry>usrloc</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>print usrloc statistics</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>ul_rm</entry>
			    <entry>usrloc</entry>
			    <entry>table name, user name</entry>
			    <entry>remove all user's contacts from user-location database</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>ul_rm_contact</entry>
			    <entry>usrloc</entry>
			    <entry>table name, user name, contact</entry>
			    <entry>remove a user's contact from user-location database</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>ul_dump</entry>
			    <entry>usrloc</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>print content of in-memory user-location database</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>ul_flush</entry>
			    <entry>usrloc</entry>
			    <entry>none</entry>
			    <entry>flush content of in-memory user-location cache in
			    persistent database (MySQL)</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>ul_add</entry>
			    <entry>usrloc</entry>
			    <entry>table name, user name, contact, expiration, priority (q)</entry>
			    <entry>insert a contact address in user-location database</entry>
			</row>
			<row>
			    <entry>ul_show_contact</entry>
			    <entry>usrloc</entry>
			    <entry>table, user name</entry>
			    <entry>show user's contact addresses in user-location database</entry>
			</row>
		    </tbody>
		</tgroup>
	    </table>
	</section>
	<section>
	    <title>Used Database Tables</title>
	    <para>
		<application>ser</application> includes MySQL support
		to guarantee data persistence across server reboots and storage
		of users' web environment. The data stored in
		the database include user profiles, access control lists, user location,
		etc. Note that users are not supposed to alter the data directly, as it
		could introduce inconsistency between data on persistence storage and
		in server's memory.
		The following list enumerates used tables and explains their purpose.

		<itemizedlist>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    subscriber -- table of users. It includes user names and
			    security credentials, as well as additional user information.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    reserved -- reserved user names. <application>serweb</application>
			    does not permit creation of accounts with name on this list.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    phonebook -- user's personal phonebooks. Accessible via
			    <application>serweb</application>.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    pending -- table of unconfirmed subscription requests. Used by
			    <application>serweb</application>.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    missed_calls -- table of missed calls. Can be fed by acc modules
			    if mysql support is turned on. Displayed by <application>serweb</application>.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    location -- user contacts. Typically updated through
			    <application>ser</application>'r registrar
			    functionality.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    grp -- group membership. Used by auth module to determine
			    whether a user belongs to a group.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    event -- allows users to subscribe to additional services.
			    Currently unused.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    aliases -- keeps track of alternative user names.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    active_sessions -- keeps track of currently active web sessions.
			    For use by <application>serweb</application>.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    acc -- keeps track of accounted calls.  Can be fed by acc module
			    if mysql support is turned on. Displayed by <application>serweb</application>.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    config -- maintains attribute-value pairs for keeping various information.
			    Currently not used.
			</para>
		    </listitem>
		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    silo -- message store for instant messages which could not have been
			    delivered.
			</para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    version -- keeps version number of each table definition.
			</para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    domain -- maintains list of served domains.
			</para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    server_monitoring-* -- reserved for persistent monitoring of
				server's operation
			</para>
		    </listitem>

		    <listitem>
			<para>
			    uri -- used to keep lists of URIs "owned" by a user
				(as identified by digest identity); good for some
				PSTN interworking scenarios
			</para>
		    </listitem>


		</itemizedlist>

	    </para>
	</section>
</section>