1. RPC Control Interface
     __________________________________________________________________

   1.1. Overview of Operation
   1.2. Module API

        1.2.1. RPC Functions
        1.2.2. Data Types
        1.2.3. Getting Parameters

              1.2.3.1. scan
              1.2.3.2. struct_scan
              1.2.3.3. Retrieving Parameters Example

        1.2.4. Building Reply

              1.2.4.1. fault
              1.2.4.2. send
              1.2.4.3. add
              1.2.4.4. printf
              1.2.4.5. struct_add

        1.2.5. Real World Example

   1.3. Client Examples
   1.4. Implementing New Transports
   1.5. Examples using xmlrpc

1.1. Overview of Operation

   The RPC (Remote Procedure Call) interface is an interface for
   communicating with external applications. Using it an external
   application can call a function or procedure that will be executed
   inside SIP Server (SER or Kamailio). Function parameters are supported
   as well as returning multiple values as results.

   By itself RPC consists of two APIs, one for defining RPC functions in a
   transport independent way (called the rpc module api) and one for
   implementing RPC transports.

   The RPC transports are implemented by writting a RPC transport module.
   The most used transport modules are ctl and xmlrpc . The first one
   implements a ser-proprietary fast and space efficient RPC encoding over
   different protocols (unix sockets, UDP, TCP, fifo). The second one uses
   the de-facto XML-RPC standard encoding (over HTTP TCP or TLS). For more
   information about the existing transport modules, please refer to their
   documentation.

   When writing a RPC procedure or function, one needs only use the RPC
   API and it will work automatically with all the transports and
   encodings. One needs only to load the desired RPC transport module
   (e.g. xmlrpc).

   The RPC interface (or API) was created in such a way that would allow
   supporting XML-RPC (because XML-RPC is a de-facto standard), while in
   the same time being very easy to use.

1.2. Module API

   Each module can export RPC functions just like it can export parameters
   and functions to be called from the script. Whenever SIP server
   receives an RPC request, it will search through the list of exported
   RPC functions and the function with matching name will be executed. A
   couple of essential RPC functions are also embedded into the SIP server
   core.

   This section gives a detailed overview of the whole RPC API.
   Section 1.2.1, "RPC Functions" describes the prototype and conventions
   used in RPC functions. Section 1.2.2, "Data Types" gives a detailed
   overview of available data types that can be used in function
   parameters and return value. Section 1.2.3, "Getting Parameters"
   describes functions of the RPC API that can be used to retrieve
   parameters of the function, and finally Section 1.2.4, "Building Reply"
   describes functions of the API that can be used to build the result
   value that will be sent in the reply to the caller.

   The whole RPC API is described in header file sip_router/rpc.h. This
   file defines the set of functions that must be implemented by RPC
   transport modules, as described in Section 1.4, "Implementing New
   Transports", prototypes of RPC functions and structures used for the
   communication between RPC transport modules and ordinary modules
   exporting RPC functions.

1.2.1. RPC Functions

   RPC functions are standard C functions with the following prototype:
typedef void (*rpc_function_t)(rpc_t* rpc, void* ctx);

   RPC functions take two parameters, first parameter is a pointer to
   rpc_t structure and the context. The rpc_t structure contains
   references to all API functions available to the RPC function as well
   as all data necessary to create the response. RPC functions do not
   return any value, instead the return value is created using functions
   from the context. The motivation for this decision is the fact that RPC
   functions should always return a response and even the API functions
   called from RPC functions should have the possibility to indicate an
   error (and should not rely on RPC functions doing so).

   If no reply is sent explicitely, the RPC transport module will
   automatically send a "success" reply (e.g. 200 OK for XML-RPC) when the
   RPC function finishes. If no values are added to the response, the
   reponse will be an empty "success" reply (e.g. a 200 OK with empty body
   for XML-RPC). RPC API functions will automatically send an error reply
   upon a failure.

   Each RPC function has associated an array of documentation strings. The
   purpose of the documentation strings is to give a short overview of the
   function, accepted parameters, and format of the reply. By convention
   the name of the documentation string array is same as the name of the
   function with "_doc" suffix.

   Each module containing RPC functions has to export all the RPC
   functions to SIP server core in order to make them visible to the RPC
   transport modules. The export process involves a rpc_export_t structure
   (either by itself or in an array):
typedef struct rpc_export {
    const char* name;        /* Name of the RPC function (null terminated) */
    rpc_function_t function; /* Pointer to the function */
    const char** doc_str;    /* Documentation strings, method signature and desc
ription */
    unsigned int flags;      /* Various flags, reserved for future use */
} rpc_export_t;

   The flags attribute of the rpc_export structure is reserved for future
   use and is currently unused.

   There are several ways of exporting the RPC functions to the SIP server
   core:
     * register a null terminated array of rpc_export_t structures using
       the rpc_register_array() function (defined in rpc_lookup.h), from
       the module init function (mod_init()). This is the recommended
       method for all the new modules.
       Example 1. usrloc RPC Exports Declaration
       The rpc_export_t array for the modules_s/usrloc module looks like:
rpc_export_t ul_rpc[] = {
    {"usrloc.statistics",      rpc_stats,           rpc_stats_doc,          0},
    {"usrloc.delete_aor",      rpc_delete_aor,      rpc_delete_aor_doc,     0},
    {"usrloc.delete_contact",  rpc_delete_contact,  rpc_delete_contact_doc, 0},
    {"usrloc.dump",            rpc_dump,            rpc_dump_doc,           0},
    {"usrloc.flush",           rpc_flush,           rpc_flush_doc,          0},
    {"usrloc.add_contact",     rpc_add_contact,     rpc_add_contact_doc,    0},
    {"usrloc.show_contacts",   rpc_show_contacts,   rpc_show_contacts_doc,  0},
    {0, 0, 0, 0}
};

       To register it from the module init function one would use
       something similar to:
        if (rpc_register_array(ul_rpc) != 0) {
                ERR("failed to register RPC commands\n");
                return -1;
        }
     * register RPCs one by one using the rpc_register_function() (defined
       in rpc_lookup.h), from the module init function.
     * register a null terminated array of rpc_export_t structures using
       the SIP server module interface SER_MOD_INTERFACE (specific for SER
       flavour). For this purpose, the module_exports structure of SIP
       server module API contains a new attribute called rpc_methods:
struct module_exports {
    char* name;                 /* null terminated module name */
    cmd_export_t* cmds;         /* null terminated array of the exported command
s */
    rpc_export_t* rpc_methods;  /* null terminated array of exported rpc methods
 */
    param_export_t* params;     /* null terminated array of the exported module
parameters */

    init_function init_f;         /* Initialization function */
    response_function response_f; /* function used for responses */
    destroy_function destroy_f;   /* function called upon shutdown */
    onbreak_function onbreak_f;
    child_init_function init_child_f;  /* function called by all processes after
 the fork */
};
       rpc_methods is a pointer to an array of rpc_export_t structures.
       The last element of the array is a bumper containing zeroes in all
       the attributes of the structure. The following program listing
       shows the exported RPC functions of the modules_s/usrloc module,
       using the rpc_export_t array ul_rpc defined above, in the
       rpc_register_array() example:
       Example 2. usrloc Module Exports Declaration
struct module_exports exports = {
    "usrloc",
    cmds,      /* Exported functions */
    ul_rpc,    /* RPC methods */
    params,    /* Export parameters */
    mod_init,  /* Module initialization function */
    0,         /* Response function */
    destroy,   /* Destroy function */
    0,         /* OnCancel function */
    child_init /* Child initialization function */ };

Note
       This mode works only with modules using the SER flavour module
       interface. It does not work for kamailio modules and it will
       probably not work for future sip-router modules. It is safer and
       recommended to use instead the rpc_register_array() function.

   By convention the name of every exported function consists of two parts
   delimited by a dot. The first part is the name of the module or SIP
   server subsystem this function belongs to. The second part is the name
   of the function.

1.2.2. Data Types

   The RPC API defines several basic and 1 compound data type that can be
   used in communication with the caller of RPC functions. The RPC API
   uses formating strings to describe data types. Each data type is
   described by exactly one character in the formating string. For
   example, if an RPC function calls function add of the RPC API and it
   passes two parameters to it, the first one of type string and the
   second one of type integer, the function parameters will look like:
add("sd", string_param, int_param);

   Character "s" in the formating string tells to the function that the
   2nd parameter should be interpreted as string, character "d" in the
   formating string tells to the function that the 3rd parameter should be
   interpreted as signed integer.

   Integer.  Integer type represents a signed 32-bit integer.
   Corresponding character in the formating string is "d". This parameter
   can be stored in C-style variable with type int.

   Float.  Float type represents a signed floating point number.
   Corresponding character in the formating string is "f". Data of this
   type can be stored in C-style variables of type double.

   String.  String type represents a string of characters. The string may
   contain zeroes. This data type is represented by two characters in the
   formatting string, either "s" or "S". "s" indicates to the conversion
   function that the result should be stored in a variable of type char*
   and it should be zero terminated. "S" indicates to the conversion
   function that the result will be stored in a variable of type str which
   contains both the pointer to the beginning of the string and its
   length.

   Structure.  Structure is the only compound data type currently defined
   in the API. A structure is a collection of attributes. Each attribute
   is identified using name (string) and each attribute can be one of the
   basic data types, that is integer, float, or string. Nesting of
   structures is not allowed (in other words, structure attributes cannot
   be of type struct again). Corresponding character in the formatting
   string is "{".

   Optional parameters.  Optional parameters can be used, but only in the
   scan function. For optional parameters the scan function will not
   automatically generate a rpc fault if the input ends. Note that in this
   case the scan will still return a negative value (minus the number of
   parameters successfully read). Optional parameters can be marked in the
   format string by preceding the first optional parameter type with a
   "*". All the parameters following a "*" are considered to be optional.
   For example for the format string "ds*dds", the last 3 parameters (2
   ints and a string) are optional.

   Table 1. Data Type Overview
   Name Formating String Char C-Style Variable
   Integer d int
   Float f double
   String s char*
   String S str
   Optional modifier * marks all further parameters as optional
   Autoconvert modifier . requires auto-conversion for the next parameter

1.2.3. Getting Parameters

   Each RPC function call can contain parameters. Parameters have no name,
   their meaning is determined by their position in the parameter set.

Note

   You can pass all parameters to a function within a structure if you
   want to make them position independent. Then each parameter can be
   retrieved by its name regardless of its position.

   There are two functions in the RPC API that can be used to obtain
   function call parameters: scan and struct_scan.

1.2.3.1. scan

   Function scan can be used to retrieve parameters from the parameter
   set. The function accepts variable number of parameters. The first
   parameter is the formatting string that determines the type of the
   parameters to be retrieved. Each parameter is represented by exactly
   one parameter type character in the string. The variable part of
   parameters must contain as many pointers to C variables as there are
   formatting non-modifiers characters in the formatting string.

Warning

   The function will crash if you fail to provide enough parameters.

   Besides characters representing parameter types, the formatting string
   can contain two special modifiers: "*" and ".". The modifiers do not
   have a correspondent in the variable part of the parameters.

   The meaning of "*" modifier is that any further parameters (defined by
   other type characters in the formatting string) are optional (they can
   be missing in the input and no rpc fault will automatically be
   generated).

   The '.' modifiers turns on type autoconversion for the next parameter.
   This means that if the type of the next parameter differs from the type
   specified in the formatting string, the parameter will be automatically
   converted to the formatting string type (if possible) and if the
   automatic conversion succeeds, no fault will be generated.

   The function returns the number of parameters read on success (a number
   greater or equal 0) and - (minus) the number of parameters read on
   error (for example for an error after reading 2 parameters it will
   return -2). When a failure occurs (incorrect parameter type or no more
   parameters in the parameter set) the function will return a negative
   number (- number of parameters read so far) and it will also
   automatically change the reply that will be sent to the caller to
   indicate that a failure has occurred on the server (unless the "*" is
   used and the error is lack of more parameters).

   The prototype of the function is:
int scan((void* ctx, char* fmt, ...)

   It is possible to either call the function once to scan all the
   parameters:
rpc->scan(ctx, "sdf", &string_val, &int_val, &double_val);

   Or you can call the same function several times and it will continue
   where it left off previously:
rpc->scan(ctx, "s", &string_val);
rpc->scan(ctx, "d", &int_val);
rpc->scan(ctx, "f", &double_val);

1.2.3.2. struct_scan

   Function struct_scan can be used to retrieve named attributes from a
   parameter of type structure.

Note

   This function is obsolete and not implemented by all the rpc transports
   (e.g.: ctl / binrpc). Consider using the normal scan instead.

   When retrieving a structure parameter from the parameter set:
rpc->scan(ctx, "{", &handle);

   The corresponding variable (named handle in the example above) will
   contain the index of the structure parameter within the parameter set,
   but the index cannot be used to retrieve the contents of the structure.
   To retrieve the contents of the structure you can use function
   struct_scan. The function gets the handle as the first parameter:
rpc->struct_scan(handle, "sd", "str_attr", &str_val, "int_attr", &int_val);

   The second parameter is the formatting string followed by pairs of
   parameters. First parameter in each pair is the name of the attribute
   to retrieve (string) and the second parameter in each pair is the
   pointer to the variable to store the value of the parameter. The
   function returns the number of parameters (name value pairs) read on
   success and - number of parameters read so far on an error (just like
   the scan function). The function also indicates an error if a requested
   attribute is missing in the structure.

1.2.3.3. Retrieving Parameters Example

   Example 3. Retrieving Parameters
static void rpc_delete_contact(rpc_t* rpc, void* ctx)
{
    str aor, contact;
    char* table;
    void *handle;
    int   expires;
    double q;

    if (rpc->scan(ctx, "sS{", &table, &aor, &handle) < 0) {
        /* Reply is set automatically by scan upon failure,
         * no need to do anything here
         */
        return;
    }

    if (rpc->struct_scan(handle, "Sdf", "Contact", &contact,
                                        "Expires", &expires,
                                        "Q",       &q        ) < 0) {
        /* Reply is set automatically by struct_scan upon failure,
         * no need to do anything here
         */
        return;
    }

    /* Process retrieved parameters here */
}

/* variable number of parameters:
   echo back all the parameters, string type required */
static void core_prints(rpc_t* rpc, void* c)
{
        char* string = 0;
        while((rpc->scan(c, "*s", &string)>0))
                rpc->add(c, "s", string);
}

/* variable number of parameters and auto conversion:
   echo back all the parameters, works with any type (everything is
   internally converted to string, notice the '.' modifier) */
static void core_echo(rpc_t* rpc, void* c)
{
        char* string = 0;
        while((rpc->scan(c, "*.s", &string)>0))
                rpc->add(c, "s", string);
}

1.2.4. Building Reply

   The RPC API contains several functions that can be used to modify
   and/or send a reply. The functions use formatting strings and parameter
   lists just like functions described in Section 1.2.3, "Getting
   Parameters".

   Each RPC function call must return a reply. The reply can be either a
   failure reply or success reply. Failure replies contain only the status
   code and reason phrase. Success replies can have arbitrary amount of
   data attached to them. Status codes 3xx, 4xx, 5xx, and 6xx indicate
   failures. Status code 2xx indicates success.

   The default reply is 200 OK with no data attached to it. This is what
   will be returned by the RPC transport module if you do not call any of
   the reply-related functions described in this section.

   Example 4. Sending default reply
static void rpc_dummy(rpc_t* rpc, void *ctx)
{
  /* 200 OK with no data will be returned */
}

1.2.4.1. fault

   You can use fault function to indicate that an error has occurred on
   the server to the caller. The function accepts two parameters. The
   first parameter is the status code and the second parameter is the
   reason phrase.
static void rpc_my_function(rpc_t* rpc, void *ctx)
{
    rpc->fault(ctx, 600, "Not Yet Implemented");
}

   If your function first creates some result using add, or printf
   functions then all the data will be lost once you call fault function.
   Failure replies must not contain any data:
static void rpc_my_function(rpc_t* rpc, void *ctx)
{
    rpc->add(ctx, "s", "result1");
    rpc->add(ctx, "d", variable);

    /* Reply created by previous functions will be
     * deleted and a failure reply 600 Not Yet Implemented
     * will be created instead
     */
    rpc->fault(ctx, 600, "Not Yet Implemented");

    /* You can also add data here, but that will have no
     * effect
     */
    rpc->add(ctx, "s", "result2");
}

   Similarly you can also call add or printf functions after calling
   fault, in this case they will have no effect:
static void rpc_my_function(rpc_t* rpc, void *ctx)
{
    rpc->fault(ctx, 600, "Not Yet Implemented");

    /* You can also add data here, but that will have no
     * effect and only 600 Not Yet Implemented will be returned
     */
    rpc->add(ctx, "s", "result2");
}

1.2.4.2. send

   RPC functions can use function send to explicitly send the reply. Each
   RPC function call generates exactly one reply. No reply will be sent
   after the function finishes if it already sent the reply using send
   function explicitly. This function is especially useful if the RPC
   function needs to perform some (potentially destructive) actions after
   the reply has been sent.

   Example 5. Kill the server
static void core_kill(rpc_t* rpc, void *ctx)
{
    int sig_no;

    if (rpc->scan(ctx, "d", &sig_no) < 0) return;
    rpc->send(ctx, );     /* First send a reply */
    kill(0, sig_no); /* Then kill the server */
}

1.2.4.3. add

   Function add can be used to add arbitrary data to the result set. Its
   parameters and use are analogical to scan function described in
   Section 1.2.3.1, "scan". The first parameter of the function is the
   formatting string that determines the types of additional parameters:
static void rpc_func(rpc_t* rpc, void *ctx)
{
    str str_result;
    int int_result;
    void *handle;
    double float_result;

    if (rpc->add(ctx, "Sdf{", &str_result, int_result, float_result, &handle) <
0) return;
}

   Naturally you can call this function several times, adding only one
   piece of data at a time. The function returns 0 on success and -1 on an
   error. In case of an error the reply is set automatically with
   corresponding error code and reason phrase.

   The last character in the formatting string of the function above
   indicates that the last data to be added will be a structure. This
   deserves some clarification. In this case, the function will create an
   empty structure and the handle to the newly created structure will be
   stored in handle variable (hence the last parameter is pointer to an
   integer). In this particular example parameters str_result, int_result,
   and float_result will be used for reading while parameter handle will
   be used for writing by the function.

   You can set the attributes of the newly created structure using
   struct_add function described in Section 1.2.4.5, "struct_add".

1.2.4.4. printf

   printf is a convenience function. The function adds data of type string
   to the result set. The first parameter of the function is again a
   formatting string, but this time it is printf-like formatting string:
if (rpc->printf(ctx, "Unable to delete %d entries from table %s", num_entries, t
able_name) < 0) return;

   The return value of the function is the same as of add function.

1.2.4.5. struct_add

   Function struct_add can be used to add attributes to a structure
   (created previously by add function). The first parameter of the
   function is handle obtained through add function, the second parameters
   is formatting string that determines the types of attributes to be
   added. There must be two parameters per each character in the
   formatting string, the first one is the name of the attribute, the
   second parameter is the value of the attribute. If a parameter with
   such a name already exist in the structure then it will be overwritten
   with the new value.
static void rpc_func(rpc_t* rpc, void *ctx)
{
    void *handle;

        /* Create empty structure and obtain its handle */
    if (rpc->add(ctx, "{", &handle) < 0) return;
        /* Fill-in the structure */
    if (rpc->struct_add(handle, "sd", "attr1", str_val,
                                      "attr2", int_val ) < 0)
        return;
}

   The function returns -1 on an error (and sets the status code and
   reason phrase of the reply accordingly) and 0 on success.

1.2.5. Real World Example

   The following example illustrates the use of most of the functions from
   the API together:

   Example 6. Real World Example RPC Function
static void rpc_register(rpc_t* rpc, void *ctx)
{
    char* domain;
    str aor;
    contact_t contact, new_contact;
    void *handle;

        /* Extract the domain, address of record from the request */
    if (rpc->scan(ctx, "sS{", &domain, &aor, &handle) < 0) return;
        /* Extract the structure describing the contact to be processed */
    if (rpc->struct_scan(handle, "Sdf", "Contact", &contact.c,
                                        "Expires", &contact.expires,
                                        "Q",       &contact.q       ) < 0)
        return;

        /* Process the contact, new_contact will contain updated value after pro
cessing */
    if (process_contact(domain, &aor, &new_contact, &contact) < 0) {
           /* Processing failed, indicate the failure to the caller */
        rpc->fault(ctx, 500, "Error While Processing Contact");
        return;
    }

        /* Return the domain and the address of record */
    rpc->add(ctx, "sS{", &domain, &aor, &handle) < 0) return;
        /* And also add the new values for contact, q, and expires parameters */
    rpc->struct_add(handle, "Sdf", "Contact", &new_contact.c,
                                   "Expires", &new_contact.expires,
                                   "Q",       &new_contact.q       );
}

1.3. Client Examples

     * sercmd (C application that uses the binrpc interface implemented by
       the ctl module).
     * ser_ctl (python application that uses the XML-RPC interface
       implemented by the xmlrpc module).
     * serweb (php application that can use the XML-RPC interface to call
       ser functions).

1.4. Implementing New Transports

   To be done.

   Examples:
     * ctl
     * xmlrpc

1.5. Examples using xmlrpc

   See the xmlrpc module documentation: modules/xmlrpc/README.